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Questions tagged [rockets]

Questions regarding the boosters or thrusters used to propel man-made objects.

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2answers
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Longest continuous burning chemical rocket engine?

I'm curious as to what rocket engine in a launched rocket burned the longest in a continuous fashion. I'm not interested in testing burns or inter-planetary engines which are designed for low-thrust ...
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2answers
2k views

Would it be possible to go beyond Jupiter without making any slingshot?

It is said that we do not have such advanced technology in order to send a spacecraft out of the solar system. (Source: Everyone around) When a spacecraft is launched from Earth and aims to leave the ...
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2answers
1k views

Has SpaceX re-used a first stage twice yet?

SpaceX has re-used a first stage once, several times now. Has it re-used the same first stage twice yet? If not, has a particular mission been named that will be the first second re-use?
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1answer
1k views

How to design a bell nozzle from scratch [closed]

I need help creating my own custom model rocket nozzle. I'm making a model rocket, it will have many intricate parts, but the most intricate maybe the nozzle. My question is where do I start if I want ...
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0answers
65 views

How can the delta-V be calculated depending on the launch altitude above sea level?

If we assume that we have a given launcher that is able to produce a $\Delta v$ of 10km/s at sea level takeoff, and is able to reach an LEO of 200km above sea level, what LEO altitude would that ...
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4answers
601 views

Mining lunar thorium for building nuclear rockets on the Moon

Has there been any research on what lunar in-situ processes would have to be developed to mine and process thorium to build nuclear thermal rockets on the Moon?
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7answers
913 views

The Martian: Does it really take a supercomputer to calculate spaceflight maneuvers?

My preemptive apologies for asking a question about a movie, and the spoilers within said question, but considering the widespread support for its scientific plausibility, I'm hoping you'll let it ...
3
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1answer
545 views

Cooling a hydrolox rocket with Water

Would it be efficient to use water as a coolant in a hydrolox rocket, then feed the steam after the water has boiled (due to heat transfer from the engine nozzle) into the combustion chamber, so as to ...
3
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2answers
430 views

Why do SpaceX rockets' re-entries seem to burn (as in heat the hull) less than the space shuttle? [duplicate]

Why do SpaceX rockets' re-entries seem to burn (as in heat the hull) less than the space shuttle ? Is it because of less friction surface ? Thanks !
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1answer
1k views

Why does the Falcon 9 FT have a higher payload capacity to GTO than a Zenit-3SL?

The Zenit-3SL has a slightly higher thrust for both 1st and 2nd stage and is launched from the Equator. However, the Falcon FT(expendable) has a higher payload to GTO and its diameter is 3.7m compared ...
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2answers
2k views

What is producing the orange-brown smoke in the exhaust of some North Korean missiles?

Accompanying a newsreader's report of North Korea's launch of a new long-range (claimed up to 10,000km) missile is footage of a launch in which the rocket produces clouds of orange/brown smoke. ...
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1answer
1k views

Could we use the moon for a slingshot effect?

The slingshot effect or gravity assist maneuver produces a boost on the speed of the object which attempts to approach a planet head-on at a speed V while the planet is moving directly toward us at a ...
3
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1answer
814 views

Roughly, how fast do rockets travel?

I know that different rockets are built with different a range of different sizes or purposes, but there must be some kind of range of typical speeds for those things when leaving the Earth. So how ...
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1answer
835 views

What is Characteristic Length in a rocket engine?

The characteristic length of a engine's combustion chamber $L^*$ is defined as the ratio of the chamber volume to nozzle throat area: $$L^*=\frac{V_{chamber}}{A_{throat}} $$ Would it be correct to ...
5
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1answer
193 views

Understanding Von Braun's Math: Theoretical Isp

I've just read Wernher Von Braun's Project Mars: A Technical Tale, and I'm trying to understand the math in the back. I can follow some of what he's doing, but other parts I just can't tell where his ...
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1answer
76 views

The structures in regenerative cooling method and structural strength?

The jacket of tubes used to cool the nozzle and the combustion chamber in rocket engine, does it also give some structural strength? Does it have any function in regards to withstanding the pressure ...
3
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1answer
4k views

Does escape velocity apply to rockets? [duplicate]

I know so far that escape velocity on the surface of Earth is 11.2 km/s Wikipedia says that escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a ...
4
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1answer
452 views

At what pressure ratio did the fuel turbopumps of the F1 and J2 operate?

I would like to know the operating points of the fuel-turbo-pumps used in the Saturn rocket engine. (From what I could learn via google, the turbo pump went under the name Mark III) Is there any ...
5
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1answer
228 views

Tsiolkovysky's Rocket Equation

As we know the rocket equation, $$ \Delta v = v_e \ln\left(\frac{m_i}{m_f}\right) = I_{sp} \ g \ \ln\left(\frac{m_i}{m_f}\right) $$ So do $I_{sp}$ and the mass ratio have an inverse relation, or is ...
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0answers
128 views

Are there any designs for fusion engines with similar performance to a nuclear lightbulb?

Are there any fusion thrusters with a twr > 1 and an isp of a couple thousand seconds?
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0answers
138 views

Is the variety in the Delta rocket family the result of an artisanal rocket industry?

Between the years of 1980 and 1990 the McDonnell Douglas company supplied at least 10 different variants of the Delta rocket family. Some of these were considered to be Delta rockets while some were ...
6
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1answer
228 views

Why was the Minotaur V built as a 5-stage design?

Why is Orbital Science's Minotaur V rocket a five stage design? I am aware this is derived from an ICBM design, but why would anyone want a five stage design for launching non-lethal payloads? It ...
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2answers
436 views

What rockets are currently capable of carrying humans to Mars?

No particular emphasis is placed on a particular rocket but rather if a rocket capable of carrying a human payload exists.
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2answers
914 views

Launching a rocket from a weather balloon for a very small payload

I am new to the site and am unaware of the correct formation of my question. That being said, I wanted to know if this is plausable and what would be the correct way of tackling this idea. If I had a ...
5
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1answer
1k views

How can I measure the thrust of a model rocket and get other statistics

I have been building some Rocket-candy engines for fun, and informally experimenting with different designs or techniques. Now I'm interested in figuring out a way to compare the performance of the ...
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0answers
119 views

What is the effect of launching from higher altitude on fuel burn and rocket performance? [duplicate]

There are many sites around the world apart from USA, that have such great locations to launch from. Saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in fuel costs. Can someone assist me with a model that ...
2
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1answer
232 views

KNO3 as reverse hybrid oxidizer?

Say I want to make a reverse hybrid rocket motor, that runs on a gaseous/liquid fuel which is passed by a solid oxidizer. Would KNO3 make a good oxidizer? Or does this concept not work with Liquid ...
5
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1answer
4k views

Can I make my own RP1? [closed]

Is it possible for me to buy kerosene from a local store and then try to refine it to the extent where it would be considered RP1. If so how would I do it? For those who are wondering me and a group ...
13
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1answer
2k views

Does SpaceX put Falcon 9 2nd stages carrying geostationary satellites into a temporary sub-orbital trajectory before the second burn?

I watched the latest SpaceX launch of Intelsat 35e on 05 July 2017 carried by their Falcon 9 rocket into geostationary orbit, and noticed some confusing telemetry data. Telemetry just before the ...
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3answers
458 views

What is the failure rate of rocket components? [closed]

Take a well documented case like the Saturn V. The Saturn V had about 3 million parts. What is the total number of part failures at all stages of testing? If this is in any way unclear, describe how ...
2
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1answer
446 views

Ejection charges on Dnepr Rocket tube?

The Dnepr rocket was initially developed for use as a ballistic missile. Therefore it was developed with an explosive charge that fired the rocket out of the ground and into the air, followed by the ...
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3answers
2k views

Pollution by rockets and missiles

If we are using lots of toxic fuels like hydrazine for rockets, wouldn't this cause pollution due to the burnt leftovers ? I mean, just consider the amount of rockets and missiles launched in world so ...
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1answer
2k views

How are rocket nozzles made?

How are rocket nozzles made?? Is it a huge chunk of metal that they cut down or is it a "pipe" that they reshape? Or something else??
3
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1answer
134 views

What type of work goes into refurbishing a launch pad?

I read that launch pads need to be refurbished after every launch. What stuff on the pad takes damage? What is stopping them from covering the "stuff" in some sort of flame-retardant, explosion-proof ...
38
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1answer
6k views

Do booster stages run out of fuel, or are they purposefully shut off?

When an expendable booster rocket stage nears the end of its burn, does the guidance computer shut the engine(s) off at a certain velocity/altitude for the mission, or does the stage completely ...
7
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3answers
1k views

Is ISP all there is to engine efficiency?

Most rocket engines have their efficiency measured by the specific impulse of the engine, which is just how fast the exhaust of the engine is going. Is there another measure of efficiency that's ...
0
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1answer
107 views

What organizations correspond to the logos on this ORBITEC Vortex engine rocket?

Images are from the 2012 New Atlas article ORBITEC flight tests new vortex liquid fuel rocket engine. One looks a bit like a US military or DoD logo, one perhaps is ATK, but I'm not sure. Is this ...
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1answer
159 views

Does velocity of the exit gasses of a rocket affect visibility of the plume?

A rocket moves under the conservation of linear momentum, where the gases formed inside it, exit through the nozzle, and in turn, the rocket moves forward. What I want to ask about is that: is it true ...
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1answer
852 views

Why are some rockets orange?

After many successful launches with the Delta II, ULA made the Delta IV rocket orange. What's the reason for this strange color change? Also the Atlas V's first stage is orange, is there any ...
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1answer
321 views

Falcon 9 - relief valves closing times

From what I understand, prior to the launch, the relief valves are open to allow some of the boiling LOX to evaporate and be replaced with fresh, cold one (we can see oxygen evaporating - and "...
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2answers
4k views

SpaceX rocket strange velocity

In SpaceX launch on May 1st, 2017, we get to see the full flight path of the first stage rocket of the falcon 9 from launch to land: It accelerates to around 1685m/s ...
3
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1answer
266 views

Why Did Apollo Smoke Twist When Taking Off?

I've been looking at some references of rockets taking off. I came across the Apollo 14 Saturn V launch and noticed that when the rocket was taking off the smoke coming from around the rocket and from ...
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1answer
101 views

Orbital ATK’s Cygnus 2nd stage exhaust plume

In watching this video: of the recent Orbital ATK’s Cygnus launch, I noticed that when the 2nd stage engine fires (after the ullage engine finishes firing), that there ...
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1answer
981 views

What happens to the last stage of rockets?

When launching stuff into earth orbit like satellites for example often the last stage will perform the burn to achieve stable orbit and will then be jettisoned. So now we have a rocket stage in ...
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1answer
349 views

Upper stage structural loads on ascent?

In another question, this came up: For example, if a Falcon 9 launches 20 tons of fuel to dock in LEO, how can the same upper stage be used to launch 40 tons of fuel to the same orbit? Doesn't it ...
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1answer
608 views

Best practices for rocket ascent trajectory guidance

I thought I would ask what the most used methods in industry are, in order to guide a launch vehicle into a desired circular orbit at engine cutoff. It seems that the use of direction collocation ...
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1answer
236 views

Does all of the fuel in a Staged Combustion Cycle go to the preburner? [duplicate]

Can anyone tell me the difference between staged combustion and full flow staged combustion? Does full flow mean there are 2 preburners (fuel- and oxidiser-rich respectively) or does it mean that ...
16
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1answer
700 views

Cause of apparent plume deflection on SES-10?

While watching the SES-10 flight, starting a little after T+1:30, I noticed that the direction of the first-stage exhaust plume started to diverge from the alignment of the rocket body. The ...
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1answer
147 views

Why is one of the foci of the ellipse of the trajectory of a space rocket in the center of the sun?

According to a book I am currently reading, space rockets and ballistic rockets fly along an elliptic path. However they differ in where the focus of the ellips describing their path lays. For space ...
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1answer
835 views

How to determine $\Delta v$ loss due to gravitational pull from earth

How do I find the delta-v loss of a rocket while ascending to its apogee? Specification of Atlas V 541 rocket: Specification for Atlas V first stage: Dry Mass: 21054 kg Fuel and Oxidizer(RP1/LOX) ...