Questions tagged [russia]

The country of Russia is what remains of the former Soviet Union (Of which Russia was a province/state). The Russian/Soviet space program has been quite expansive and capable over many decades. Currently it appears to be suffering from lack of funding leading to quality control issues at times.

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American spies in Russia 1956 [migrated]

In 1956 my father, John J. Glennon (Librarian for the what is not the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics) was one of the few fluent Russian speakers in the US at the time, as I ...
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What USSR-US cooperation was proposed for a Moon mission?

President Kennedy apparently proposed working with the USSR on reaching the moon more than once. There is speculation that had he lived it may have happened, with the Soviets coming around to the idea....
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What size and shape is an SL-16 R/B and for how long will they orbit Earth?

This night I've seen two SL-16 R/B on the sky with my binoculars. These where part of some Zenit rockets that launched satellites in the 90s. They travel at altitudes that double the ISS, uncontrolled....
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Roscosmos: Government agency, state-owned corporation, or something else?

Exactly what kind of organization is Roscosmos? An agency of the government, like NASA? We seem to treat it as such in this site. A state-owned corporation, like the old Soviet design bureaus? The ...
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What kind of heat shield will Federatsiya (Federation) have?

Federatsiya (or Federation) is Russia's next generation crew vehicle, to replace Soyuz. According to its Wikipedia article, it may be reusable: Roskosmos reserved the option of making the crew ...
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What language is the Russian segment ISS software written in?

I have heard that the ISS uses a Russian coding language for some of the systems and subsystems on the Russian segment of the ISS. What is that coding language?
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Luna 15 - Any official confirmation of objectives?

Russia's Luna 15 crashed into the lunar surface shortly after Apollo 11 landed. It's widely considered a failed sample return mission, but did Russia ever officially announce that sample return was ...
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How is Spektr-R doing these days?

Under the question What are Spectr-R's major contributions to radio astronomy that could not have been done from Earth? there is a new comment that points (again) to the BBC News article Spektr-R: ...
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What are the options of a space enthusiast regarding visiting Plesetsk?

Last year I was in Murmansk and fell in love with the far north of Russia. I'm planning another trip somewhere towards Karelia, northern Ural or such... and being a space enthusiast I'm quite tempted ...
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Do space stations have standardized officer designations for crew?

I have some anecdotal information. The ISS has a commander, and I noticed here that it had a Flight Engineer, and in this article (found here) I see that Skylab had a Science Pilot. Do space stations ...
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How did the Luna spacecraft collect samples of the moon and containerize them for return to Earth?

The Wikipedia page Sample-return mission and this answer list Luna 16, 20 and 24 missions as each bringing back of the order of 100 grams of lunar material to Earth, but their Wikipedia pages don't ...
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How did Lunokhod 1 become “lost” in 1971; in what ways did astronomers “look for it” after that?

The Smithsonian Magazine article Lost Soviet Reflector Found on the Moon says: There are actually five retroreflectors on the Moon: three placed by Apollo astronauts and two that sit atop Soviet ...
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Does the recently-tested Russian hypersonic craft enter space?

I am not going to invoke the K-word in this question! Hypersonic long-range craft have to fly pretty high to travel circa mach 20. Would they need to travel into space to do so efficiently?
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How did NORAD notice Kosmos 954 was making erratic manoeuvres?

In Wiki for Kosmos 954 there is: In mid-December North American Aerospace Defense Command, which had assigned the satellite the Satellite Catalog Number 10361, noticed Kosmos 954 making erratic ...
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Did Buran also copy the Canadarm?

Considering that the Soviets copied practically everything else on the Space Shuttle, did they also make their own version of the Canadarm robotic arm?
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Is this a photo of today's Soyuz anomaly happening in flight seen from the ISS? What are the little dots?

ISS Exp. 57 Cmdr. and ESA Astronaut Alexander Gerst's Tweet today says: Glad our friends are fine. Thanks to the rescue force of >1000 SAR professionals! Today showed again what an amazing vehicle ...
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Is this window zenith-facing? (ISS docked Soyuz) If so, how directly?

Pursuant to the question Does the ISS have zenith-facing windows? to which the conclusion (in my opinion) is that there may be a window that provides an oblique view that might include the zenith if ...
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How many leaks have been fixed on the ISS, roughly?

Leaks come in all sizes. Very small ones might be ignored or remain undetected, slightly faster ones might be identified and dispositioned; if they are slow and going to remain stable, they might not ...
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What are these antenna-like structures seen in Oleg Artemyev twitter video?

Russian Cosmonaut Oleg Artemyev's Sept 3, 2018 tweet has a narrated video of Earth from the ISS, at the time over the Nile river. The video is also in YouTube (below). At the bottom of the screen, ...
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What does this drawing by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky illustrate, or represent?

The Kinetic video (ironically titled) The first rocket scientist - Robert Goddard begins with an introduction to the even more first rocket scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and shows the following ...
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Russian “kerosene” versus American “RP-1”

RP-1 rocket fuel is a "highly refined form of kerosene". Most of the literature I have seen refers to Russian rockets using kerosene, versus American rockets using RP-1 (*1). Is there really such a ...
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Are any of these Soyuz controls involved in separating the orbital module?

According to this Q & A, it's very likely that the Soyuz spacecraft's orbital module can be manually separated independent of other spacecraft operations. On this CollectSpace page, there's an ...
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How is a Russian satellite's behavior “very abnormal”?

The BBC has a news article saying: "Mystery Russian satellite's behaviour raises alarm in US". But the article doesn't say how or why the behavior is "abnormal". And the linked transcript of Remarks ...
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Does Russia still manufacture parts for their space program that would otherwise be obsolete?

The Russian space program is notable for continuing to use the same designs that have been successful for decades. For example, the Soyuz boosters and Soyuz crew vehicles in use today are still the ...
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How did the Russians get moon rocks?

I've read somewhere that the Russians have moon rocks. How did they get them?
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“Pillars of Baikonur” What is the purpose of the hundreds of short, white posts near the Baikonur Cosmodrome launch pad?

The caption given in the third image included in the Space.com page Expedition 56: The Space Station Mission in Photos reads as follows: At the Baikonur Cosmodrome launch pad, remote-controlled ...
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What are the parameters of the new Iodine electrical rocket engine developed by RSC Energia?

Several news outlets are reporting Energia Rocket and Space Corporation is nearing completion of a new electrical rocket engine using iodine stored as a solid and vaporized as needed. The new ...
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How many nuclear fission reactors have been launched into space? How many are still there?

I remember @Hobbes's answer mentioning that the US has put one nuclear fission reactor in space, and that not much was known about Russia's program. The Bloomberg article NASA Is Bringing Back Cold ...
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What just happened? What does this satellite breakup announcement mean? What does it suggest?

I logged into Space-Track and immediately saw this message: The 18th Space Control Squadron has confirmed the breakup of SL-12 R/B(AUX MOTOR), #36407. The time of breakup was at approximately 0206z,...
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What spinoff technologies have come from the Soviet/Russian space program?

There is plenty of information available on NASA spinoff technologies including a Wikipedia page and Space SE question. What innovations are a byproduct of the Russian space program?
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Did Soviets/Russians perform any crewed (intentionally) suborbital flights?

Gagarin went directly to the orbit - the first manned flight was orbital. I don't know about any other Soviet or Russian spaceflights that wouldn't be orbital - except for some odd aborted launch or ...
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Is China collaborating with Russia on the Soyuz, or perhaps developing their own?

I saw the following statement in the BBC's short article and video Soyuz: the Soviet marvel that remains on duty after 50 years. As a subtitle in the video: And it will remain on duty for years: ...
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Zenit Launch Costs

I am compiling a table of data on price-mass ratios of various modern rockets, and I have been unable to find any information on how much it costs to launch a Zenit rocket. Does anybody know how much ...
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How do items from the Russian and Soviet space programs end up in private collections?

A member today posted this photo showing a complete instrument panel from a Soyuz TM capsule, and a globus instrument from a Voskhod capsule: Both items are in their private collection. Only 5 ...
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Is this fairing covered in thick thermal insulation? Keeping the payload warm? Or Cold?

I was enjoying some 2017 April 13 tweets on robots and reminiscing about shoveling snow after seeing this one, but then I scrolled down further and saw a video of a rocket. It's also here in YouTube, ...
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Sharing the skies with Russia, for how long? [closed]

Everyone knows that there are tensions with Russia that have existed for years. At what point do they stop cooperating with NASA and the USG in general? Have there never been worries about what ...
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How did Alexey Leonov bleed off the pressure in his space suit?

On the Voskhod 2 mission, cosmonaut Alexey Leonov performed a spacewalk which ran into issues when Lenov's spacesuit had some sort of pressure buildup. From the wiki - [Leonov] was forced to bleed ...
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Is Soyuz-2.1v as hardy as previous Soyuz launchers?

The Soyuz series of rockets is famously hardy due to its descent from the R-7 ICBM; the last launch of a Soyuz-U took place "on a launch pad covered in several inches of snow...with a launch time ...
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Online availability of high-quality Russian launch/space videos?

I am interested in videos of Russian space program, especially the older ones (old Soyuz launches, Soyuz docking with MIR, Leonov's spacewalk etc.). While NASA puts all their videos online in good ...
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Why did Sputnik 1 have four antennas?

Sputnik was only launched a few hundred kilometers above Earth, and transmitted only a simple beeping signal. What was the purpose of having four antennas? Wouldn't one be powerful enough?
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What does the abbreviation “MS” for the current Soyuz version name mean?

A quick search the meaning of the abbreviations for the previous versions of the Soyuz spacecraft easily tells me their meaning: Soyuz T. 'T' is for транспортный, ...
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Did early Russian capsules really have “Human Inside” labels?

This comic claims that it was to prevent people panicking and attacking the crew. However, Vostok pilots were supposed to land separately from the capsule. Are there any photos supporting this claim? ...
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Did USSR discontinue radio transmissions, relocate ships, to aid the US in response to Apollo 13?

In this article there is following statement by Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger: Let me only remind you of the recent near-tragedy of Apollo 13. When the time of the crucial reentry of the astronauts ...
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Soviet equivalent to Lunar Orbiter Program

NASA launched Lunar Orbiter Program in an effort to map Moon's surface, choose landing spots for Apollo missions and acquire images for landing simulator. Did USSR have similar program? Luna 12 seems ...
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From which Apollo mission is this audio sample?

I found this page where Evgeny Molotov, former head of the Research institute of Space instruments, plays supposed intercepted communication of unknown Apollo mission. Can anyone identify from which ...
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Why do Astro/Cosmonauts refer to things as Russian or American?

I'm watching CSA videos, and have watched numerous documentaries before, and have noticed that both Astronauts and Cosmonauts alike aboard the ISS tend to refer to something as either Russian, or ...
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Venera mission image data format

I often work with the programmatic manipulation of images and 3d environments in my work at an engineering firm. Out of pure curiosity I was wondering about the Venera mission data format. I read that ...
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Why were these spacewalks so short?

I got lost down the wiki hole and ended up reading a page on Sergei Avdeyev when I noticed that he has 2 very short spacewalks listed: MIR EO-20 – 8 December 1995 – 0 hours, 37 minutes MIR EO-...
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When is the PTK NP spacecraft likely to be launched?

The PTK NP spacecraft seems to be the future successor of the Soyuz spacecraft. Does anyone know when the first launch will likely be? The estimates I have seen vary a lot, so what will be realistic?
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When/where did the cosmonauts fight wolves?

When/where did the cosmonauts fight wolves? or was it bears? With a gun? Could someone provide a more complete story? One of comments on the article TidalWave linked in the Soyuz joysticks question ...