Questions tagged [russia]

The country of Russia is what remains of the former Soviet Union (Of which Russia was a province/state). The Russian/Soviet space program has been quite expansive and capable over many decades. Currently it appears to be suffering from lack of funding leading to quality control issues at times.

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Are any of these Soyuz controls involved in separating the orbital module?

According to this Q & A, it's very likely that the Soyuz spacecraft's orbital module can be manually separated independent of other spacecraft operations. On this CollectSpace page, there's an ...
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Does a published account of the economics of Russian debris shipbreaking exist?

Most Soviet and Russian rockets are/were launched from an inland site, and spent booster stages crash on the ground in sparsely populated (and frequently impoverished) rural areas. Since the fall of ...
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China, UAE and US all sending missions to Mars in 2020 (Summer of L̶o̶v̶e Mars); how far apart are their frequencies?

Gizmodo's Second failure of ExoMars parachute test throws schedule in jeopardy says: ExoMars 2020 is due to launch during a narrow window open between July 25th to August 13th 2020, during which ...
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How did the first manned flight re-entry happened?

How was Yuri Gagarin brought back to the Earth? Did he do entry himself, by ground control, or by software?
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Has Russia used the TDRS system, other than for the ISS?

U.S. spacecraft in low earth orbit communicate with the ground using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. Prominent uses have included the Space Shuttle, Hubble Space Telescope, and ...
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How close to a building has a Soyuz landed?

Soyuz capsules are designed to land onto land. To avoid the small chance of harming people or property, they are usually targeted to land in remote parts of Kazakhstan. However, some landings aren't ...
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Does Russian mission control still use the callsign “Zarya”, and how did that not conflict with the ISS module?

The Wikipedia page for the Salyut space station claims Initially, the space stations were to be named Zarya, the Russian word for 'Dawn'. However, as the launch of the first station in the ...
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Do space stations have standardized officer designations for crew?

I have some anecdotal information. The ISS has a commander, and I noticed here that it had a Flight Engineer, and in this article (found here) I see that Skylab had a Science Pilot. Do space stations ...
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How do items from the Russian and Soviet space programs end up in private collections?

A member today posted this photo showing a complete instrument panel from a Soyuz TM capsule, and a globus instrument from a Voskhod capsule: Both items are in their private collection. Only 5 ...
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Why do Russian rocket engineers call C₂H₈N₂ “heptyl”?

Unsymmetrical dimethlyhydrazine or "UDMH" is a propellant which has been used by Russian, American, European, Chinese, and Indian rockets. Russian rocket engineers nickname it "heptyl". Why was this ...
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Why are checklists the way they are?

Checklists from different programs are quite different, they are also different from typical aviation checklists. The ISS checklists are full of special characters, e.g. √, boxes around numbers, some ...
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Why did Angara fly twice in 2014, but hasn't flown since?

Angara flew twice in 2014, in both the single- and five- core configurations. However, it's been six years and it's only scheduled to fly a third time much later this year (2020). How could it have ...
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Is there any advantage in launching spacecraft from a high latitude, or why was Plesetsk built so far north?

For launching satellites or other spacecraft, there is a significant advantage in being close to the equator: angular momentum helps in gaining initial speed and one can launch into any inclination. ...
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Is the Nudelman-Rikhter gun installed on Zvezda module?

By having a gun on board, one can conduct military kinds of experiments. Exploring armoring approaches for spacecraft, warning systems for the personnel, orbital ballistic studies for the multi-body ...
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Why are there advertisements in the Russian ISS flight control room?

I found a photograph of the Russian ISS flight control room: Source: NASA https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Russian_ISS_Flight_Control_Room.jpg Below the large screen are several ...
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What happens differently when ISS is inside this red boundary (Russia & Europe & …)?

The question Why are there advertisements in the Russian ISS flight control room? shows the image below. There is a large red boundary that looks like the boundary of the overlap of several circles ...
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How many leaks have been fixed on the ISS, roughly?

Leaks come in all sizes. Very small ones might be ignored or remain undetected, slightly faster ones might be identified and dispositioned; if they are slow and going to remain stable, they might not ...
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Is there any work in English that gives a systematic treatment of Soviet/Russian rocket engines?

There seems to be some piecemeal information online such as RussianSpaceWeb.com, and of course, Sutton's History of LPRE gives an anthropological treatment of Soviet/Russian rocket engine lineup ...
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When is the PTK NP spacecraft likely to be launched?

The PTK NP spacecraft seems to be the future successor of the Soyuz spacecraft. Does anyone know when the first launch will likely be? The estimates I have seen vary a lot, so what will be realistic?
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Why will Russia start arming cosmonauts again?

The Phys.org article Russia to give cosmonauts guns to fend off animals on landing says: Cosmonauts have been unarmed for more than a decade but Roscosmos agency head Dmitry Rogozin said it was time ...
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Does the depiction of water blobs in the Salut-7 movie reflect an actual event?

In the beginning of the very cool Veritassium video The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained, the host Derek Muller says: In 1985, cosmonaut Vladimir Dzhanibekov was tasked with saving ...
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What USSR-US cooperation was proposed for a Moon mission?

President Kennedy apparently proposed working with the USSR on reaching the moon more than once. There is speculation that had he lived it may have happened, with the Soviets coming around to the idea....
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How many hydrolox engines had a methane variant?

Russia, has developed many rocket engine concepts over the years and its noticeable that they already tried liquid methane as a propellant back in the 90s. How many of their cryogenic engines had a ...
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Where are remains of laika?

I have already tried searching about laika But one thing i am not able to find What about remains of famous space dog laika? where are her remains? In space or fell back to earth?
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What size and shape is an SL-16 R/B and for how long will they orbit Earth?

This night I've seen two SL-16 R/B on the sky with my binoculars. These where part of some Zenit rockets that launched satellites in the 90s. They travel at altitudes that double the ISS, uncontrolled....
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What is the basis of the new Russian nuclear rocket propulsion?

The New York Times' Russia Confirms Radioactive Materials Were Involved in Deadly Blast discusses the potential nuclear aspects of the recent missile test and references several time the possibility ...
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What is/were the Soviet/Russian qualifications for a capsule communicator?

The person in mission control responsible for speaking to American crews is called the capsule communicator or CAPCOM. Historically this person has been another astronaut -- as they would have the ...
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Did SpektrRG make a “u-turn”, and how does this ground track remain a steady 6° above the equator?

This tweet The second (crucial) engine firing of the Block DM-03 stage in today's #SpektrRG launch to come in an hour, when the spacecraft almost completes its first orbit around the Earth. Here is ...
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Has USSR/Russia launched humans on any rocket not derived from R-7?

The Soviet Union's first crewed launch, Vostok 1, was on a Vostok booster, derived from the R-7 ICBM and Sputnik satellite launcher with an additional stage added. The Soyuz boosters used today by ...
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Launch capabilities of GSLV Mark III

What are the parameters of determining the launch capabilities of a rocket? Also, How does ISRO's GSLV Mark III fare against rockets like N-1, Proton, R-7 etc?
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Why did Germany launch its spy satellites from Russia?

I just saw this article on a family of German recon sats https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAR-Lupe They were all launched from Russia! Why? Why not an Ariane launch from French Guiana? I can ...
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What is the meaning of the ROSCOSMOS logo?

ROSCOSMOS is the Russian state corporation for space exploration. Its logo is below. What is the official meaning or significance of the parts of the logo? ROSCOSMOS' main launch site (Baikonur ...
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How is Spektr-R doing these days?

Under the question What are Spectr-R's major contributions to radio astronomy that could not have been done from Earth? there is a new comment that points (again) to the BBC News article Spektr-R: ...
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What was being manufactured on Salyut and Mir?

Last weekend I attended a prelection at Polish Aviation Museum, on modern trends in aviation. The lecturer talked quite a bit of history too, and Soviet achievements were in as much focus as the ...
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Roscosmos: Government agency, state-owned corporation, or something else?

Exactly what kind of organization is Roscosmos? An agency of the government, like NASA? We seem to treat it as such in this site. A state-owned corporation, like the old Soviet design bureaus? The ...
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What language is the Russian segment ISS software written in?

I have heard that the ISS uses a Russian coding language for some of the systems and subsystems on the Russian segment of the ISS. What is that coding language?
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What kind of heat shield will Federatsiya (Federation) have?

Federatsiya (or Federation) is Russia's next generation crew vehicle, to replace Soyuz. According to its Wikipedia article, it may be reusable: Roskosmos reserved the option of making the crew ...
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Luna 15 - Any official confirmation of objectives?

Russia's Luna 15 crashed into the lunar surface shortly after Apollo 11 landed. It's widely considered a failed sample return mission, but did Russia ever officially announce that sample return was ...
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Did Buran also copy the Canadarm?

Considering that the Soviets copied practically everything else on the Space Shuttle, did they also make their own version of the Canadarm robotic arm?
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Did Soviets/Russians perform any crewed (intentionally) suborbital flights?

Gagarin went directly to the orbit - the first manned flight was orbital. I don't know about any other Soviet or Russian spaceflights that wouldn't be orbital - except for some odd aborted launch or ...
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How similar are Soyuz and Progress?

Superficially the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft look very similar: (Soyuz TMA-7) (Progress M-52) So it would be easy to imagine that they share a common service module and/or orbital module. But ...
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What are the options of a space enthusiast regarding visiting Plesetsk?

Last year I was in Murmansk and fell in love with the far north of Russia. I'm planning another trip somewhere towards Karelia, northern Ural or such... and being a space enthusiast I'm quite tempted ...
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How did the Luna spacecraft collect samples of the moon and containerize them for return to Earth?

The Wikipedia page Sample-return mission and this answer list Luna 16, 20 and 24 missions as each bringing back of the order of 100 grams of lunar material to Earth, but their Wikipedia pages don't ...
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How did the Russians get moon rocks?

I've read somewhere that the Russians have moon rocks. How did they get them?
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How did Lunokhod 1 become “lost” in 1971; in what ways did astronomers “look for it” after that?

The Smithsonian Magazine article Lost Soviet Reflector Found on the Moon says: There are actually five retroreflectors on the Moon: three placed by Apollo astronauts and two that sit atop Soviet ...
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Does the recently-tested Russian hypersonic craft enter space?

I am not going to invoke the K-word in this question! Hypersonic long-range craft have to fly pretty high to travel circa mach 20. Would they need to travel into space to do so efficiently?
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How did NORAD notice Kosmos 954 was making erratic manoeuvres?

In Wiki for Kosmos 954 there is: In mid-December North American Aerospace Defense Command, which had assigned the satellite the Satellite Catalog Number 10361, noticed Kosmos 954 making erratic ...
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Zenit Launch Costs

I am compiling a table of data on price-mass ratios of various modern rockets, and I have been unable to find any information on how much it costs to launch a Zenit rocket. Does anybody know how much ...
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Online availability of high-quality Russian launch/space videos?

I am interested in videos of Russian space program, especially the older ones (old Soyuz launches, Soyuz docking with MIR, Leonov's spacewalk etc.). While NASA puts all their videos online in good ...
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Is this a photo of today's Soyuz anomaly happening in flight seen from the ISS? What are the little dots?

ISS Exp. 57 Cmdr. and ESA Astronaut Alexander Gerst's Tweet today says: Glad our friends are fine. Thanks to the rescue force of >1000 SAR professionals! Today showed again what an amazing vehicle ...