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Questions tagged [russia]

The country of Russia is what remains of the former Soviet Union (Of which Russia was a province/state). The Russian/Soviet space program has been quite expansive and capable over many decades. Currently it appears to be suffering from lack of funding leading to quality control issues at times.

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8 votes
1 answer
839 views

How many nuclear fission reactors have been launched into space? How many are still there?

I remember p@Hobbes's answer to Which countries have built RTGs and used them in Earth orbit and/or beyond? mentioning that the US has put one nuclear fission reactor in space, and that not much was ...
16 votes
2 answers
3k views

Why are checklists the way they are?

Checklists from different programs are quite different, they are also different from typical aviation checklists. The ISS checklists are full of special characters, e.g. √, boxes around numbers, some ...
14 votes
2 answers
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How do items from the Russian and Soviet space programs end up in private collections?

A member today posted this photo showing a complete instrument panel from a Soyuz TM capsule, and a globus instrument from a Voskhod capsule: Both items are in their private collection. Only 5 ...
2 votes
2 answers
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Can the Tirada-2S satellite communications electronic jamming system be used to jam the Starlink network?

In this October ~7, 2022 Reddit post, I'm reading some conflicting information on whether the Tirada-2S satellite communications electronic jamming system can be used to jam the Starlink network: ...
9 votes
1 answer
404 views

How does the Russian invasion of Ukraine affect ISS operations? [closed]

I realise this question may be shut down as opinion-based, but here goes anyway. With diplomatic relations in the toilet following Russian military activity in Ukraine, how will this affect future ...
8 votes
1 answer
638 views

How many leaks have been fixed on the ISS, roughly?

Leaks come in all sizes. Very small ones might be ignored or remain undetected, slightly faster ones might be identified and dispositioned; if they are slow and going to remain stable, they might not ...
6 votes
3 answers
526 views

China, UAE and US all sending missions to Mars in 2020 (Summer of L̶o̶v̶e Mars); how far apart are their frequencies?

Gizmodo's Second failure of ExoMars parachute test throws schedule in jeopardy says: ExoMars 2020 is due to launch during a narrow window open between July 25th to August 13th 2020, during which ...
2 votes
1 answer
114 views

Sputnik I and Gagarin's space flight

The US was completely surprised by Sputnik (I) and also by Yuri Gagarin's space flight. Was the USSR equally surprised by the success of Apollo 11? If not, were they expecting/wishing any failure of ...
4 votes
0 answers
119 views

New(?) flag of Baikonur

While watching a video of deployment of Soyuz spacecraft, I noticed a flag next to the launchpad, with sign 'Baikonur' and a graphic of Earth and several stars; one I didn't see anywhere else: ...
2 votes
0 answers
125 views

What is the current status of space laser communication (lasercom) in Russia and China?

Space-based laser communications (Free Space Optics) is making a dent in the field of satcom, but as always news from the East doesn't seem to make much appearance in English-speaking media. From ...
9 votes
2 answers
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Soyuz for Sale?

Reading through some stuff on the interwebs I came across some information saying that some old Soyuz Capsules are keep in a junkyard. Does anyone know if it's actually possible to purchase one of ...
6 votes
1 answer
481 views

Would the Lunniy Korabl be able to dock with the Oryol spacecraft?

As a successor to the Soyuz program, Russia is currently planning the Oryol/Federatsiya, at first for LEO flights and eventually for lunar ones. Russia wants to build a lunar space station (similar to ...
13 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is the first Russian satellite still beeping?

The Russians were the first to launch a satellite into space - and it did one thing: beep. It would send out radio waves of nothing but beeps. Still, it was a huge technological achievement. My ...
4 votes
2 answers
371 views

Was the teletype machine on MIR the first printer in space? Is there a photo, and what frequencies were used?

Seeing the video KK5IM 2021 Shack Tour spotted in The Ham Shack lead me to What paper size do they use on the International Space Station? which begins: We know they have at least one printer on the ...
3 votes
1 answer
539 views

How exactly did ground stations track the early Molniya satellites?

Wikipedia's Orbita (TV system) says: Orbita (Russian: орбита) is a Soviet-Russian system of broadcasting and delivering TV signals via satellites. It is considered to be the first national network of ...
3 votes
1 answer
780 views

Who designed the cool-looking Orbita Molniya tracking station at Khabarovsk? What does it look like inside?

Wikipedia's Orbita (TV system) says: Orbita (Russian: орбита) is a Soviet-Russian system of broadcasting and delivering TV signals via satellites. It is considered to be the first national network of ...
3 votes
1 answer
175 views

What was the first Soviet/Russian spacesuit to use closed-loop ventilation?

The spacesuit used for the first spacewalk used open-loop ventilation, venting exhaust gases into space: On reaching orbit in Voskhod 2, Leonov and Belyayev attached the EVA backpack to Leonov's ...
1 vote
1 answer
124 views

How were Soviet/Russian aircraft used to track and/or communicate with spacecraft?

Russian Space Web's Russian ground control and tracking network mentions A Soviet Iluyshin-18 aircraft configured to maintain communications with spacecraft. in the sidebar and includes the small ...
2 votes
1 answer
175 views

What device did Oleg Novitsky insert into the hatch of the Nauka module before opening it? How does it work? When did it arrive to the ISS? [duplicate]

The Roscosmos Media video Первое видео из модуля «Наука» (google translates to: "The first video from the module "Science" (Nauka)) shows Roscosmos cosmonauts Oleg Novitsky and Pyotr ...
3 votes
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164 views

Did India purchase the Gaganyaan design from Russia?

Gaganyaan is an orbital crew module under development by the Indian Space Research Organisation. Sources indicate a design based on the Russian Soyuz: As of 2015 the design utilized a Soyuz-shaped ...
2 votes
1 answer
254 views

What are, and what has been learned from making plasma crystals in space? Is a tl;dr-like answer possible?

The two articles below describe a set of plasma crystal experiments scheduled for 2019 aboard the ISS in cooperation with German and Russian scientists on the ground. These were not the first but ...
2 votes
1 answer
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How will Nauka be configured on the ISS? In which direction will it extend?

The NASA Johnson Space to Ground: At the Midpoint: 07/02/2021 video this week from Mexico City to promote Espacio a Tierra includes the following: Also launching to the Station, a new multi-purpose ...
16 votes
2 answers
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How similar are Soyuz and Progress?

Superficially the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft look very similar: (Soyuz TMA-7) (Progress M-52) So it would be easy to imagine that they share a common service module and/or orbital module. But ...
10 votes
3 answers
2k views

Which of the former Soviet republics have sent a cosmonaut into space?

The Soviet Union was composed of 15 Union Republics for much of its history and at the time of its dissolution in 1991. Which of the 15 former Soviet republics have sent a cosmonaut into space, ...
13 votes
3 answers
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How did Lunokhod 1 become "lost" in 1971; in what ways did astronomers "look for it" after that?

The Smithsonian Magazine article Lost Soviet Reflector Found on the Moon says: There are actually five retroreflectors on the Moon: three placed by Apollo astronauts and two that sit atop Soviet ...
4 votes
2 answers
779 views

Who uses a countdown, and who doesn't?

I just learned that the Russians don't use a countdown when launching a rocket. I saw that in a YouTube video and found a Reddit discussion that confirms it. That makes me wonder who does and who ...
17 votes
1 answer
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Why is the tip of this Russian ICBM folding/closing during launch?

This question refers to the page on which a YouTube video Soviet Missile SS-18 Satan / Most Powerful Rocket is shown. Screenshots below are from circa 01:10 for ...
5 votes
1 answer
455 views

Who transliterates non-Russian names into Russian for space-suit name tags?

Many, many astronauts have gone on to be wonderful orators, educators, advocates for science, education and positive thinking, Major Tom Colonel (ret) and (fmr) ISS Commander Chris Hadfield is just ...
6 votes
1 answer
301 views

The Russian space module named Spektr

Watching Away I learn about a Russian “ghost story”, which is about an air leak within a space station's module named Spektr leading to a distinct hissing noise (air leaking into space). How can this ...
4 votes
0 answers
218 views

What do the RD numbers of Russian rocket engines mean?

Most Russian rocket engines have a name on the form of for example RD-107 (РД-107). But apart from different engines having different numbers, how is the number chosen? All RD-2xx engines appears to ...
6 votes
1 answer
580 views

What are the parameters of the new Iodine electrical rocket engine developed by RSC Energia?

Several news outlets are reporting Energia Rocket and Space Corporation is nearing completion of a new electrical rocket engine using iodine stored as a solid and vaporized as needed. The new ...
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the meaning of the ROSCOSMOS logo?

ROSCOSMOS is the Russian state corporation for space exploration. Its logo is below. What is the official meaning or significance of the parts of the logo? ROSCOSMOS' main launch site (Baikonur ...
38 votes
5 answers
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Did Sputnik 1 tell us more than "beep"? What science was improved by information gained from its orbiting the Earth?

Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite launched by humans to orbit the Earth. This answer begins: Sputnik had just one single job: Prove its existence by sending a simple "beep" ...
4 votes
2 answers
844 views

Do the Russians use a water deluge system when launching their current rockets?

After a video by What About it discussing water deluge systems I got to thinking about it. I remember hearing that the Russians don't use water deluge systems. Not sure if these would be considered a ...
12 votes
2 answers
1k views

Are any of these Soyuz controls involved in separating the orbital module?

According to this Q & A, it's very likely that the Soyuz spacecraft's orbital module can be manually separated independent of other spacecraft operations. On this CollectSpace page, there's an ...
5 votes
1 answer
102 views

Does a published account of the economics of Russian debris shipbreaking exist?

Most Soviet and Russian rockets are/were launched from an inland site, and spent booster stages crash on the ground in sparsely populated (and frequently impoverished) rural areas. Since the fall of ...
3 votes
0 answers
97 views

Has Russia used the TDRS system, other than for the ISS?

U.S. spacecraft in low earth orbit communicate with the ground using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. Prominent uses have included the Space Shuttle, Hubble Space Telescope, and ...
10 votes
1 answer
569 views

How close to a building has a Soyuz landed?

Soyuz capsules are designed to land onto land. To avoid the small chance of harming people or property, they are usually targeted to land in remote parts of Kazakhstan. However, some landings aren't ...
2 votes
0 answers
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Does Russian mission control still use the callsign "Zarya", and how did that not conflict with the ISS module?

The Wikipedia page for the Salyut space station claims Initially, the space stations were to be named Zarya, the Russian word for 'Dawn'. However, as the launch of the first station in the ...
3 votes
0 answers
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Do space stations have standardized officer designations for crew?

I have some anecdotal information. The ISS has a commander, and I noticed here that it had a Flight Engineer, and in this article (found here) I see that Skylab had a Science Pilot. Do space stations ...
7 votes
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Why do Russian rocket engineers call C₂H₈N₂ "heptyl"?

Unsymmetrical dimethlyhydrazine or "UDMH" is a propellant which has been used by Russian, American, European, Chinese, and Indian rockets. Russian rocket engineers nickname it "heptyl". Why was this ...
5 votes
1 answer
260 views

Why did Angara fly twice in 2014, but hasn't flown since?

Angara flew twice in 2014, in both the single- and five- core configurations. However, it's been six years and it's only scheduled to fly a third time much later this year (2020). How could it have ...
26 votes
4 answers
12k views

Is there any advantage in launching spacecraft from a high latitude, or why was Plesetsk built so far north?

For launching satellites or other spacecraft, there is a significant advantage in being close to the equator: angular momentum helps in gaining initial speed and one can launch into any inclination. ...
13 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is the Nudelman-Rikhter gun installed on Zvezda module?

By having a gun on board, one can conduct military kinds of experiments. Exploring armoring approaches for spacecraft, warning systems for the personnel, orbital ballistic studies for the multi-body ...
16 votes
1 answer
872 views

Why are there advertisements in the Russian ISS flight control room?

I found a photograph of the Russian ISS flight control room: Source: NASA https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Russian_ISS_Flight_Control_Room.jpg Below the large screen are several ...
13 votes
2 answers
2k views

What happens differently when ISS is inside this red boundary (Russia & Europe & ...)?

The question Why are there advertisements in the Russian ISS flight control room? shows the image below. There is a large red boundary that looks like the boundary of the overlap of several circles ...
4 votes
0 answers
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Is there any work in English that gives a systematic treatment of Soviet/Russian rocket engines?

There seems to be some piecemeal information online such as RussianSpaceWeb.com, and of course, Sutton's History of LPRE gives an anthropological treatment of Soviet/Russian rocket engine lineup ...
3 votes
1 answer
196 views

When is the PTK NP spacecraft likely to be launched?

The PTK NP spacecraft seems to be the future successor of the Soyuz spacecraft. Does anyone know when the first launch will likely be? The estimates I have seen vary a lot, so what will be realistic?
5 votes
0 answers
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Why will Russia start arming cosmonauts again?

The Phys.org article Russia to give cosmonauts guns to fend off animals on landing says: Cosmonauts have been unarmed for more than a decade but Roscosmos agency head Dmitry Rogozin said it was time ...
3 votes
1 answer
265 views

Does the depiction of water blobs in the Salut-7 movie reflect an actual event?

In the beginning of the very cool Veritassium video The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained, the host Derek Muller says: In 1985, cosmonaut Vladimir Dzhanibekov was tasked with saving ...