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Questions tagged [solid-fuel]

Questions about solid fuels. The rockets that use them, the fuels that are burned, and the vendors that make them.

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6 votes
2 answers
388 views

Thrust to weight of large solid fuel boosters

I have been looking at examples of large solid fuel rocket boosters or first stages used for space launch, such as P80, the Space Shuttle SRB, the various versions of Graphite-Epoxy-Motor, the solid ...
19 votes
1 answer
738 views

How far have autophage rockets been developed?

Ars Technica reports on a May 24 phys.org press release/precis on a University of Glasgow paper in Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets about a solid rocket intended to consume itself during use rather ...
-1 votes
1 answer
124 views

What should be the fuel mass of a hypersonic (Mach 7) rocket using APCP fuel that would deliver a 50 gram payload?

Well, I used this rocket calculator besides asking ChatGPT and BingGPT and both gave me similar answers where the amount of fuel would be around 300 to 4000 grams of APCP fuel. And 30 to 100 grams for ...
22 votes
1 answer
9k views

How were the Space Shuttle SRBs ignited? (with what?)

I'm unable to find how exactly the Space Shuttle's SRBs were ignited, or what exactly was used to ignite the rocket. I'm trying to figure out the best way to instantly ignite a solid rocket reliably,...
3 votes
0 answers
77 views

Computing Flight Characteristics for Different Propellant Grain Geometries?

Consider the following image: I am interested in mathematically accounting for some of these different geometries but have had little success so far in finding how this can be done. The first thought ...
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

How do you find the propellant mass needed to reach an specified altitude? (altitude at end of burn plus altitude during coast)

This question is basically entirely explained in the title, but I'll explain it more so this question doesn't get shut down. Basically, does anyone have an equation to find the propellant mass(solid) ...
2 votes
0 answers
66 views

What is the A in the mass flow rate formula for solid rocket propellants? How do I get the chamber pressure? [closed]

I believe the mass flow rate formula for solid rocket motors is:$$\dot{m}=p_pA_br$$ What is $A_b$ in this case. Is it the cross-sectional area of the hole in the grain? What is there is a nozzle? What ...
3 votes
1 answer
662 views

Does this Soyuz vehicle burn coal or oil? What is its official name?

This tweet shows the image below and says: Soyuz rocket on its way to the launch pad (on a train of course). Question: Does this Soyuz vehicle (a train engine) burn coal or oil? Does it have an ...
-2 votes
3 answers
306 views

Can Solid Rockets (Aluminum-Ice) have an advantage when designing light space-tug for LEO?

This is a new subject for Space Industry – heavy spacecraft (1200-ton) in LEO that have to burn hundreds of tons of propellant to get going to their destination. It looks inefficient to launch 7+ fuel ...
5 votes
1 answer
196 views

SLS SRB sound suppression system

The Shuttle, in addition to the water deluge system, used a series of red nylon bags filled with water at the base of each SRB for additional sound suppression. Does the SLS, whose boosters produce ~...
4 votes
1 answer
693 views

For Shuttle SRB solid fuel perforations, what is the shape of the double-truncated-cone?

I understand the 11-point star perforations in the solid fuel in the top-most SRB section. Several articles say that the remaining sections had a double-truncated-cone perforation. Is my illustration ...
12 votes
1 answer
5k views

How does an Electric Solid Propellant rocket work?

I saw the section in Wikipedia about Electric Solid propellants but I can't figure out what it really is, and how it works. It sounds like a solid propellant rocket that you can start and stop ...
6 votes
0 answers
89 views

How do spin-stabilized rockets conduct gravity turns?

I was reading this NTRS document about a spin-stabilized solids-only small launcher. The paper mentions that the proposed design (called 428A) will be spin-stabilized during launch and gravity turn. ...
3 votes
1 answer
167 views

Why was a solid fuel rocket chosen as the 3rd stage for the Europa Clipper launch?

According to Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_48#Use_on_New_Horizons a solid fuel Star 48 “kick stage” was chosen as the 3rd stage in the launch of Europa Clipper. Solid fuel rockets have ...
2 votes
0 answers
80 views

"Semi" hybrid rocket? Throttleable solid fuel rocket?

Are there any published examples of "hybrid" rockets that used a propellant grain of mixed solid fuel and oxidizer where the injected component was only needed to sustain the burn without ...
10 votes
2 answers
368 views

How exactly does depressurization work in a solid rocket motor?

How does the extinction process actually work in a solid rocket motor? Most people initially always read that once a solid rocket fuel is ignited there is no way to actually stop its operation until ...
28 votes
2 answers
5k views

Why do the walls of a solid rocket booster not glow red hot?

After ignition the walls of the SRB are separated from the "reaction chamber" by solid rocket fuel. But as the burn progresses, more and more fuel is used up and so the isolation from the ...
9 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why isn't someone building a fully reusable solid fuel rocket?

Solid rocket motors are so much simpler than liquid fueled. Why isn't e.g. SpaceX making a Falcon 9 equivalent with solid fuel only, and rescuing the segment cases with parachutes like the shuttle ...
6 votes
3 answers
1k views

Aerospike with solid fuel

I was scrolling in youtube and I saw this awesome video and I think, if we put an aerospike nozzle in a sounding rocket,or even a small orbital rocket, as a first stage solid booster, this type of ...
2 votes
0 answers
480 views

What is the most powerful solid rocket fuel (highest isp) and it's combustion temperature

I wanted to know what the most power full solid rocket fuel is. I do not mean theoretical once like metallic hydrogen. Are solid rocket fuel mixtures prepared in a non-ideal mixture? In other words, ...
8 votes
1 answer
752 views

How do HMX-fuelled rockets launch without exploding?

Unlike most civilian solid-fuel rockets, which use ammonium perchlorate/aluminium fuels with a rubber binder (known in the industry as ammonium perchlorate composite propellant, or APCP for short), ...
2 votes
0 answers
178 views

Paraffin wax in solid motors

Paraffin wax is often used in (at least hypothetical) hybrid motors, mostly with N2O or HTP. Could it not, however, be used in a conventional configuration? Running at O/F of 12.4, 60 bar chamber ...
17 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is the difference between the solid fuel Boosters of the Shuttle and Artemis?

The Shuttle boosters had 4 segments and Artemis has 5. What are the differences in total mass, thrust and burn time? Is the thrust profile (thrust over time) the same?
2 votes
1 answer
102 views

Is there a purpose in developing a 5 kg kick stage (Star 5A)?

A follow up to Why does the Star-5A have such a bad mass ratio? A comment left by @RussellBorogove says ...the Star-5A is extremely small, at 4.6kg. At that size, the usual observed scaling ...
17 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why did the Vanguard rocket use a solid engine for its third stage?

The Vanguard rocket had three stages. The first two were liquid-fueled and the third was solid-fueled. That struck me as odd, as solid fuel engines are almost exclusively used in atmosphere, and you'd ...
1 vote
0 answers
103 views

Why does the Star-5A have such a bad mass ratio?

I went over the KSP-RO's Discord research notes and found this PDF about the Star kick motors. The OP wrote that the Star-5A had a mass ratio of 0.493, which seems extremely low from a solid motor ...
2 votes
2 answers
203 views

Restartable Solid Rocket Motors Through Expanding Throats?

I recall seeing diagrams on a solid rocket motor that could "blow" itself out through suddenly expanding its nozzle, leading to the propellant no long burning or producing any thrust. First ...
6 votes
0 answers
226 views

Why does this sounding rocket have black sooty exhaust with mach-diamond-like oscillations? Is this unusual?

File footage of a sounding rocket with a dark, non-luminescent, sooty exhaust with mach-diamond-like oscillations is shown in the video 1957-1959 IBM 704 Computer - Vanguard Satellite Program "...
6 votes
1 answer
448 views

What limits pressure buildup in SRB's?

According to st. Robert's Law, propellant burn rates increase with pressure. When an SRB is ignited, propellant starts to burn, making the pressure rise in the combustion chamber. The flow through the ...
9 votes
4 answers
1k views

Are ICBMs and orbital launchers similar enough to be co-developed today?

Russia has two types of hypergolic liquid fuel ICBMs deployed, UR-100N and R-36M2 Vojewoda and they are working on the big Sarmat. There's in this category also the Chinese DF-A5. (A list of ICBMs ...
3 votes
3 answers
444 views

Is there any practical application of trinitramide N(NO2)3 in rocket propellants

In 2010 researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden announced the discovery of new compound, trinitramide N(NO2)3, which could revolutionize production of solid rocket propellants....
8 votes
1 answer
259 views

Could the SS520 be used to return a payload from Mars to Earth?

The Japanese SS520-5 nanosat launcher has a payload of 5kg or so to LEO on an all solid fuel rocket with a total mass of about 2.6 tons. To reach LEO its delta-V totalled over all three stages must be ...
5 votes
0 answers
132 views

What is the benefit of an inverted rocket stage?

For example the Chinese rocket Jielong 1 has an inverted 4th (final) stage. So the payload sits between 3rd and 4th stage. When 3rd stage separates it has to do a 180 degree turn before igniting the ...
5 votes
1 answer
578 views

What is this black smoke coming from an all solid fueled Epsilon rocket?

I saw a clip of a recent (Nov. 5th, 2021) JAXA Epsilon launch on Instagram (link). Shown differently here in a YouTube video @~0:23s: It's an entirely solid fueled ...
2 votes
1 answer
354 views

Why are my empirical and theoretical value of mass flow rate in solid propellant rockets not similar?

For a rocket of: fuel mass $m_f$ = 6 kg, Thrust = 3.1 kN, (vs 4k using reducing catalyst to delay burn time) total powered burn time, $t_b$ = 3.5 s, (using reducing catalyst vs 1.8 sec) This ...
2 votes
1 answer
167 views

Solid metal fuel for nano satellite thrusters

A South African company is developing a solid metal fuel thruster that was initially researched by NASA but was not further developed, an electric reaction could be used to vaporise solid metal fuel, ...
3 votes
0 answers
123 views

Rocket equation with Drag factor

For the avg Thrust of 2 kN, burn time = 3.5 s, burn rate= 1.4, over the time diff of dt = 0.1 sec Isp = 140 sec Cd for the Ogive nose cone C-section = 0.75 Cross-sec Area of the ogive nose cone = 0....
3 votes
2 answers
565 views

Calculating the projectile of rocket using RCS to tilt the flight path

If I have main solid rocket with 800 N Thrust, 9 kg in total and has RCS thrusters 0.5 m from the center mass. Mid flight the RCS with 1 N force is activated for 2 sec. How does it affect the flight ...
3 votes
1 answer
343 views

The thrust in the calculation of specific impulse

In calculating the specific impulse using the thrust generated as one of the parameters, do we take the total thrust generated or the average thrust over the period of the burn? $I_{sp} = \frac{F_{...
0 votes
1 answer
115 views

Tilted exhaust gases from the rocket nozzle after sonic boom [closed]

Our solid propellant rocket, on test, produces sonic boom. Right after, the plume of exhaust tilts sideways. This will definitely have a gimbal effect during flight. The propellant chamber has one ...
2 votes
1 answer
497 views

What is the max height I can achieve with my solid prop rocket?

For a rocket of: mass, $m$ = 25kg, dry mass $m_f$ = 19 kg, Thrust = 2.1 KN, total powered burn time, $t_b$ = 3.5 s, $I_{sp}$ = 129 I get powered burn height = 549 m and total time to max ht of 5506 ...
7 votes
1 answer
913 views

What was the first large rocket to use APCP solid fuel?

I'm surprised wikipedia doesn't have a history section for its APCP article. If I'm not mistaken, early solid rockets used something other than APCP, and really really early solid rockets used black ...
2 votes
1 answer
370 views

Which burning of Solid Propellant is best axial burning or radial Burning?

Which Burning is Better Axial or Radial of Solid Propellant grain used in Solid Rocket Motors? How Someone Determines which to choose according to the Mission requirements ?
3 votes
1 answer
126 views

What are the temperature constraints on various solid rocket boosters?

What are the temperature constraints on various solid boosters/launchers; what are the lowest and highest temperatures they can tolerate? (One answer per booster/launcher/stage)
8 votes
3 answers
1k views

Why doesn't Rocket Lab use a solid stage?

I was just reading about the Scout, an all-solid rocket, and thought of Rocket Lab's Electron, which seems to have a similar mission of deploying small payloads to orbit. I understand the engines to ...
16 votes
1 answer
649 views

How does solid propellant mean bulk temperature influence solid rocket thrust and specific impulse?

The relationship is not intuitively clear to me, would like an answer with references and/or graphs. The question arose while reading about Space Shuttle's SRBs.
13 votes
5 answers
3k views

Has there ever been a completely solid fuelled orbital rocket? [duplicate]

Engines and fuel management are very expensive to develop, and for smaller launch providers and space agencies this could prevent them from entering the market. My question is, would the cost savings ...
9 votes
2 answers
798 views

Are more details about the fatal rocket motor accident at Cape Canaveral in April 1964 available?

The 1966 book The Life and Death of a Satellite by Alfred Bester contains an account of a accidental ignition of a third-stage solid rocket motor in a Delta rocket spin test facility at the Cape which ...
11 votes
1 answer
980 views

What ever happened to SpinSat - did it work?

I can find several descriptions of what the SpinSat satellite was supposed to do. I can find some nice images of it being deployed from the ISS also. But I haven't been so successful in understanding ...
8 votes
1 answer
952 views

What does “supersonic large amplitude ID maneuver PTI” mean, and what does a tumble motor do?

In this question I linked to a YouTube video of the Ares X-1 launch. You can start listening at 02:00 for the point where these are mentioned: "Supersonic large ...