# Questions tagged [solid-fuel]

Questions about solid fuels. The rockets that use them, the fuels that are burned, and the vendors that make them.

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### Computing Flight Characteristics for Different Propellant Grain Geometries?

Consider the following image: I am interested in mathematically accounting for some of these different geometries but have had little success so far in finding how this can be done. The first thought ...
794 views

### How do you find the propellant mass needed to reach an specified altitude? (altitude at end of burn plus altitude during coast)

This question is basically entirely explained in the title, but I'll explain it more so this question doesn't get shut down. Basically, does anyone have an equation to find the propellant mass(solid) ...
48 views

### What is the A in the mass flow rate formula for solid rocket propellants? How do I get the chamber pressure? [closed]

I believe the mass flow rate formula for solid rocket motors is:$$\dot{m}=p_pA_br$$ What is $A_b$ in this case. Is it the cross-sectional area of the hole in the grain? What is there is a nozzle? What ...
646 views

### Does this Soyuz vehicle burn coal or oil? What is its official name?

This tweet shows the image below and says: Soyuz rocket on its way to the launch pad (on a train of course). Question: Does this Soyuz vehicle (a train engine) burn coal or oil? Does it have an ...
679 views

### How far have autophage rockets been developed?

Ars Technica reports on a May 24 phys.org press release/precis on a University of Glasgow paper in Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets about a solid rocket intended to consume itself during use rather ...
300 views

### Can Solid Rockets (Aluminum-Ice) have an advantage when designing light space-tug for LEO?

This is a new subject for Space Industry – heavy spacecraft (1200-ton) in LEO that have to burn hundreds of tons of propellant to get going to their destination. It looks inefficient to launch 7+ fuel ...
164 views

### SLS SRB sound suppression system

The Shuttle, in addition to the water deluge system, used a series of red nylon bags filled with water at the base of each SRB for additional sound suppression. Does the SLS, whose boosters produce ~...
244 views

### Thrust to weight of large solid fuel boosters

I have been looking at examples of large solid fuel rocket boosters or first stages used for space launch, such as P80, the Space Shuttle SRB, the various versions of Graphite-Epoxy-Motor, the solid ...
468 views

### For Shuttle SRB solid fuel perforations, what is the shape of the double-truncated-cone?

I understand the 11-point star perforations in the solid fuel in the top-most SRB section. Several articles say that the remaining sections had a double-truncated-cone perforation. Is my illustration ...
5k views

### How does an Electric Solid Propellant rocket work?

I saw the section in Wikipedia about Electric Solid propellants but I can't figure out what it really is, and how it works. It sounds like a solid propellant rocket that you can start and stop ...
85 views

### How do spin-stabilized rockets conduct gravity turns?

I was reading this NTRS document about a spin-stabilized solids-only small launcher. The paper mentions that the proposed design (called 428A) will be spin-stabilized during launch and gravity turn. ...
161 views

### Why was a solid fuel rocket chosen as the 3rd stage for the Europa Clipper launch?

According to Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_48#Use_on_New_Horizons a solid fuel Star 48 “kick stage” was chosen as the 3rd stage in the launch of Europa Clipper. Solid fuel rockets have ...
73 views

### "Semi" hybrid rocket? Throttleable solid fuel rocket?

Are there any published examples of "hybrid" rockets that used a propellant grain of mixed solid fuel and oxidizer where the injected component was only needed to sustain the burn without ...
329 views

### How exactly does depressurization work in a solid rocket motor?

How does the extinction process actually work in a solid rocket motor? Most people initially always read that once a solid rocket fuel is ignited there is no way to actually stop its operation until ...
5k views

### Why do the walls of a solid rocket booster not glow red hot?

After ignition the walls of the SRB are separated from the "reaction chamber" by solid rocket fuel. But as the burn progresses, more and more fuel is used up and so the isolation from the ...
2k views

### Why isn't someone building a fully reusable solid fuel rocket?

Solid rocket motors are so much simpler than liquid fueled. Why isn't e.g. SpaceX making a Falcon 9 equivalent with solid fuel only, and rescuing the segment cases with parachutes like the shuttle ...
1k views

### Aerospike with solid fuel

I was scrolling in youtube and I saw this awesome video and I think, if we put an aerospike nozzle in a sounding rocket,or even a small orbital rocket, as a first stage solid booster, this type of ...
358 views

### What is the most powerful solid rocket fuel (highest isp) and it's combustion temperature

I wanted to know what the most power full solid rocket fuel is. I do not mean theoretical once like metallic hydrogen. Are solid rocket fuel mixtures prepared in a non-ideal mixture? In other words, ...
698 views

### How do HMX-fuelled rockets launch without exploding?

Unlike most civilian solid-fuel rockets, which use ammonium perchlorate/aluminium fuels with a rubber binder (known in the industry as ammonium perchlorate composite propellant, or APCP for short), ...
134 views

### Paraffin wax in solid motors

Paraffin wax is often used in (at least hypothetical) hybrid motors, mostly with N2O or HTP. Could it not, however, be used in a conventional configuration? Running at O/F of 12.4, 60 bar chamber ...
3k views

### What is the difference between the solid fuel Boosters of the Shuttle and Artemis?

The Shuttle boosters had 4 segments and Artemis has 5. What are the differences in total mass, thrust and burn time? Is the thrust profile (thrust over time) the same?
100 views

### Is there a purpose in developing a 5 kg kick stage (Star 5A)?

A follow up to Why does the Star-5A have such a bad mass ratio? A comment left by @RussellBorogove says ...the Star-5A is extremely small, at 4.6kg. At that size, the usual observed scaling ...
2k views

### Why did the Vanguard rocket use a solid engine for its third stage?

The Vanguard rocket had three stages. The first two were liquid-fueled and the third was solid-fueled. That struck me as odd, as solid fuel engines are almost exclusively used in atmosphere, and you'd ...
1 vote
99 views

### Why does the Star-5A have such a bad mass ratio?

I went over the KSP-RO's Discord research notes and found this PDF about the Star kick motors. The OP wrote that the Star-5A had a mass ratio of 0.493, which seems extremely low from a solid motor ...
173 views

### Restartable Solid Rocket Motors Through Expanding Throats?

I recall seeing diagrams on a solid rocket motor that could "blow" itself out through suddenly expanding its nozzle, leading to the propellant no long burning or producing any thrust. First ...
226 views

### Why does this sounding rocket have black sooty exhaust with mach-diamond-like oscillations? Is this unusual?

File footage of a sounding rocket with a dark, non-luminescent, sooty exhaust with mach-diamond-like oscillations is shown in the video 1957-1959 IBM 704 Computer - Vanguard Satellite Program "...
380 views

### What limits pressure buildup in SRB's?

According to st. Robert's Law, propellant burn rates increase with pressure. When an SRB is ignited, propellant starts to burn, making the pressure rise in the combustion chamber. The flow through the ...
1k views

### Are ICBMs and orbital launchers similar enough to be co-developed today?

Russia has two types of hypergolic liquid fuel ICBMs deployed, UR-100N and R-36M2 Vojewoda and they are working on the big Sarmat. There's in this category also the Chinese DF-A5. (A list of ICBMs ...
402 views

### Is there any practical application of trinitramide N(NO2)3 in rocket propellants

In 2010 researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden announced the discovery of new compound, trinitramide N(NO2)3, which could revolutionize production of solid rocket propellants....
254 views

### Could the SS520 be used to return a payload from Mars to Earth?

The Japanese SS520-5 nanosat launcher has a payload of 5kg or so to LEO on an all solid fuel rocket with a total mass of about 2.6 tons. To reach LEO its delta-V totalled over all three stages must be ...
128 views

### What is the benefit of an inverted rocket stage?

For example the Chinese rocket Jielong 1 has an inverted 4th (final) stage. So the payload sits between 3rd and 4th stage. When 3rd stage separates it has to do a 180 degree turn before igniting the ...
562 views

### What is this black smoke coming from an all solid fueled Epsilon rocket?

I saw a clip of a recent (Nov. 5th, 2021) JAXA Epsilon launch on Instagram (link). Shown differently here in a YouTube video @~0:23s: It's an entirely solid fueled ...
315 views

### Why are my empirical and theoretical value of mass flow rate in solid propellant rockets not similar?

For a rocket of: fuel mass $m_f$ = 6 kg, Thrust = 3.1 kN, (vs 4k using reducing catalyst to delay burn time) total powered burn time, $t_b$ = 3.5 s, (using reducing catalyst vs 1.8 sec) This ...
154 views

### Solid metal fuel for nano satellite thrusters

A South African company is developing a solid metal fuel thruster that was initially researched by NASA but was not further developed, an electric reaction could be used to vaporise solid metal fuel, ...
120 views

### Rocket equation with Drag factor

For the avg Thrust of 2 kN, burn time = 3.5 s, burn rate= 1.4, over the time diff of dt = 0.1 sec Isp = 140 sec Cd for the Ogive nose cone C-section = 0.75 Cross-sec Area of the ogive nose cone = 0....
554 views

### Calculating the projectile of rocket using RCS to tilt the flight path

If I have main solid rocket with 800 N Thrust, 9 kg in total and has RCS thrusters 0.5 m from the center mass. Mid flight the RCS with 1 N force is activated for 2 sec. How does it affect the flight ...
318 views

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### What was the first large rocket to use APCP solid fuel?

I'm surprised wikipedia doesn't have a history section for its APCP article. If I'm not mistaken, early solid rockets used something other than APCP, and really really early solid rockets used black ...
312 views

### Which burning of Solid Propellant is best axial burning or radial Burning?

Which Burning is Better Axial or Radial of Solid Propellant grain used in Solid Rocket Motors? How Someone Determines which to choose according to the Mission requirements ?
121 views

### What are the temperature constraints on various solid rocket boosters?

What are the temperature constraints on various solid boosters/launchers; what are the lowest and highest temperatures they can tolerate? (One answer per booster/launcher/stage)
1k views

### Why doesn't Rocket Lab use a solid stage?

I was just reading about the Scout, an all-solid rocket, and thought of Rocket Lab's Electron, which seems to have a similar mission of deploying small payloads to orbit. I understand the engines to ...
620 views

### How does solid propellant mean bulk temperature influence solid rocket thrust and specific impulse?

The relationship is not intuitively clear to me, would like an answer with references and/or graphs. The question arose while reading about Space Shuttle's SRBs.
3k views

### Has there ever been a completely solid fuelled orbital rocket? [duplicate]

Engines and fuel management are very expensive to develop, and for smaller launch providers and space agencies this could prevent them from entering the market. My question is, would the cost savings ...
744 views

### Are more details about the fatal rocket motor accident at Cape Canaveral in April 1964 available?

The 1966 book The Life and Death of a Satellite by Alfred Bester contains an account of a accidental ignition of a third-stage solid rocket motor in a Delta rocket spin test facility at the Cape which ...
967 views

### What ever happened to SpinSat - did it work?

I can find several descriptions of what the SpinSat satellite was supposed to do. I can find some nice images of it being deployed from the ISS also. But I haven't been so successful in understanding ...
941 views

### What does “supersonic large amplitude ID maneuver PTI” mean, and what does a tumble motor do?

In this question I linked to a YouTube video of the Ares X-1 launch. You can start listening at 02:00 for the point where these are mentioned: "Supersonic large ...