Questions tagged [soyuz-spacecraft]

Questions regarding the Soyuz manned spacecraft used by the Soviet and Russian space program.

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39
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4answers
5k views

Soyuz landing ground detection

How does Soyuz detect the ground to fire its retro rocket at the end stage? Is there any paper/reference describing the full entry descent and guidance algorithm and sensor suite used in Soyuz? If ...
30
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2answers
7k views

Why do we only use Soyuz to send humans to the ISS?

Why is Soyuz the only spacecraft that sends humans to the International Space Station and we don't use any other spacecraft?
30
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3answers
5k views

Has the ISS ever not had a lifeboat?

The International Space Station typically has one or more (manned) spacecraft docked. This is obviously to ferry crew to and from the station for each of the Expeditions. The Soyuz currently fulfils ...
26
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3answers
2k views

August 30th 2018 Soyuz leak, any dangers for re-entry?

On August 30th 2018, Soyuz MS-09 had a leak that was fixed by the ISS crew (source). Does the leak/fix have any consequences on using the Soyuz for returning to Earth? Would the fix hold the stress ...
24
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4answers
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How could the 2018-08-30 Soyuz MS-09 / ISS leak be so slow?

The leak reportedly led the ISS to lose 0.8 millibars of air pressure per hour, which is both big considering what was at stake and low for a 2-mm hole when the outside is near to complete vacuum. Am ...
23
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2answers
6k views

What happens to Soyuz reentry capsules after landing?

What happens to Soyuz reentry capsules after landing? I guess some must go to museums, but quite a lot of them have returned now. Is there any indication of where and how they are stored?
22
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1answer
1k views

What are the reasons Soyuz's lifespan in orbit is limited?

Following the recent Soyuz failure news, I found out that the currently docked Soyuz expires in the foreseeable future, leaving the crew with no means to return back to Earth. What are the reasons ...
21
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4answers
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Did the soft-landing rockets malfunction in the Soyuz (expedition 50 crew) landing?

I just watched the live feed of the Soyuz capsule landing in Kazakhstan. All the way down the narrator was describing the expected sequence of parachutes and how retro-rockets would fire approximately ...
21
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2answers
6k views

Why were Space Shuttle astronauts able to walk off the orbiter?

I am watching loads of ISS related videos and there is one detail I recently noticed; At the time, when Space Shuttles were still in operation and visiting ISS, when astronauts returned home, they ...
21
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2answers
3k views

Why did Soyuz TMA-18M take two days to reach the ISS?

Typically, a Soyuz crew vehicle takes 4 orbits to reach the ISS, but the Soyuz TMA-18M took 34 orbits or 2 days to reach it. Why is there so much variation from typical missions?
20
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1answer
5k views

Why is a stick required to operate Soyuz's computer?

In this screenshot from the recent Soyuz TMA-12M launch, a crewmember is seen using a stick to enter commands into the computer: Is this stick standard, taken on all Soyuz flights? Also, why aren't ...
19
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2answers
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What eliminates the velocity when occupants return from ISS to earth, and how much?

The ISS has an orbital velocity of ~28000 km/h; the velocity $v$ relative to the landing site of the descent module is probably even higher than that most of the time. Once the occupants have landed, ...
19
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1answer
2k views

How did the attitude system of the uncrewed Soyuz 7K-OK No.1 fail on the launch pad in 1966, killing ground staff as LES was activated?

Wikipedia has a stub article on the loss of the Soyuz 7K-OK No.1 test flight in 1966-12-14, but this part doesn't make sense to me: However, once the Soyuz rocket's engines ignited, they did not ...
19
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1answer
2k views

Why does the Soyuz cover its main engine?

As seen in Gravity, and also in this youtube video: , the Soyuz main engine is covered by a metal plate that it mechanically moved out of the way before firing. What is ...
18
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1answer
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Why are three cosmonauts required to move a Soyuz?

The opening paragraph of this article caught my eye*: Three space station crew members put on spacesuits and boarded their Soyuz spacecraft Friday for a short trip to relocate the capsule to a new ...
17
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1answer
1k views

Was the LES used in the MS-10 abort?

I can find no clear information regarding the use of the launch escape system in today's Soyoz MS-10 abort-to-ground. The failure seems to occur just as LES jettison is scheduled to take place. The ...
17
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2answers
3k views

Why does the Soyuz parachute pulsate?

During the recent return of Expedition 47 from the ISS, I noticed the main parachute of their Soyuz capsule pulsating. You can see it in this video: "Flat": "Domed": My wife noted that it looks a ...
16
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3answers
2k views

Can a single Soyuz return a crew of six back to Earth?

Let's say that the ISS has to be immediately evacuated and that one of the two Soyuz is broken. Could the crew quickly remove "unnecessary weight" (seats maybe?) and fit six person to return back to ...
16
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2answers
1k views

Why do Soyuz landings seem to be overshot?

Soyuz descent module re-entry flight is piloted (one of two modes AUS/computer or RUS/manual), using 8 thrusters, toward the Kazakhstan landing site. The ballistic re-entry occurs only when the other ...
16
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1answer
554 views

Is there an explanation for repeating Soyuz accidents involving misfiring of explosive bolts?

In the Soyuz program, quite a few accidents have been caused by malfunctions of the explosive bolts: Soyuz 11: Explosive bolts designed to fire sequentially fired simultaneously instead, causing a ...
15
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1answer
1k views

Soyuz Steering during Re-Entry

In this youtube video, it talks about steering Soyuz by changing lift. Why does roll rotation help in changing lift and also helping in cross range steering? I am looking for an answer from ...
15
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1answer
2k views

How do astronauts and cosmonauts sleep on a Soyuz?

Recently I learned that the Soyuz crew ship can take up to three days to reach ISS. I know that most of the time the travel takes only about 6 hours, but still: In case something happens, you have to ...
15
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1answer
3k views

How fast can the crew evacuate the ISS? (ACRV)

An important advantage of having a space station in LEO, as opposed to a space ship orbiting another celestial object, is allegedly that the crew can be saved by a quick return to Earth. But what ...
14
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2answers
3k views

Why is the descent module of the Soyuz in the middle of its stack?

The Soyuz is made up of three major components/modules. The Orbital module on top, basically a sphere, which is basically extra room, and contains the toilet, which allows for some modicum of ...
14
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1answer
937 views

Can Soyuz spacecraft operate without the orbital module?

Normally, before reentry, Soyuz separates into 4 chunks - the orbital module, the service module, the reentry module, and the periscope. Only the reentry module survives the reentry. Let's imagine a ...
13
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2answers
3k views

How similar are Soyuz and Progress?

Superficially the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft look very similar: (Soyuz TMA-7) (Progress M-52) So it would be easy to imagine that they share a common service module and/or orbital module. But ...
13
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1answer
1k views

Do American astronauts wear Sokol space suits when flying on a Soyuz?

The Wikipedia article on the Sokol space suit seems to suggest that all personel traveling on a Soyuz vehicle must wear a Russian made spacesuit: Each Soyuz crew member is provided with a made-to-...
13
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1answer
3k views

How is the periscope port on Soyuz spacecraft secured for the atmospheric reentry?

Soyuz Backup Periscope (ВСК-4) is used in Soyuz spacecraft to align itself for orbital corrections, deorbit burn, and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Here is a cute closeup photograph ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Do Russian and American spacecraft use the same docking mechanism?

Back in the days of the Apollo era, the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project had the two craft meeting each other in orbit and docking. The stated reason for this was so that if a spacecraft from one country was ...
13
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1answer
578 views

How many people have returned to Earth in a different type of vehicle than the one that launched them into space?

Recently we had the 15 year anniversary of Expedition 1 of the ISS. That particular crew launched in a Soyuz (TM-31) and returned on a Space Shuttle (Discovery, STS-102), which I found a remarkable ...
13
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1answer
805 views

Does the Soyuz spacecraft chemically stabilize its hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) to remain ISS-dockable for 200+ days?

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from the local shop (dilute, 2-3%) sometimes has a stabilizer to slow its breakdown rate and increase its "shelf-life", since we'd like to keep it around the house on our ...
13
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1answer
2k views

How do the Soyuz flight control sticks operate?

I would like informations on the flight controls of the Soyuz spacecraft. Especially the two control sticks, as shown in this picture (of a Soyuz simulator). I'm particularly interested by the user ...
12
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2answers
1k views

Are any of these Soyuz controls involved in separating the orbital module?

According to this Q & A, it's very likely that the Soyuz spacecraft's orbital module can be manually separated independent of other spacecraft operations. On this CollectSpace page, there's an ...
12
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1answer
2k views

Has USSR/Russia launched humans on any rocket not derived from R-7?

The Soviet Union's first crewed launch, Vostok 1, was on a Vostok booster, derived from the R-7 ICBM and Sputnik satellite launcher with an additional stage added. The Soyuz boosters used today by ...
12
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1answer
844 views

Is this smoke from Expedition 53 returning Soyuz capsule?

I was clicking through YouTubes and came across the NASA Video ISS Expedition 53 Landing in Kazakhstan (also here). I don't recall seeing such prominent and continuous smoke from returning Soyuz ...
12
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1answer
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Stand clear sign on Soyuz capsule underside

This is a photo of the soyuz capsule posted by the asker of a previous question. One of the labels reads "Not to stand near this side". What is the reason for this? Is it because of active ionizing or ...
12
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2answers
194 views

Is the location and time of a scheduled re-entry (e.g. Soyuz) announced in advance?

I’m aware of NOTAMS (notice to airmen) which are issued for launches of rockets, as for example mentioned in this answer. The same seems to be the case for deorbiting second stages (see here and here)....
11
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1answer
1k views

Can a Soyuz-MS still propel itself back to earth if all its Hydrogen Peroxide decomposed?

In this answer it is stated that: If the fuel fully decomposes then return to Earth is still possible but only via ballistic descent I find it a little bit surprising, but maybe there is enough Δv ...
11
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2answers
636 views

How do items from the Russian and Soviet space programs end up in private collections?

A member today posted this photo showing a complete instrument panel from a Soyuz TM capsule, and a globus instrument from a Voskhod capsule: Both items are in their private collection. Only 5 ...
11
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1answer
1k views

How does a gamma ray altimeter work? What kind of sensor is used?

The answers to the Space SE question Soyuz landing ground detection really surprised me. A gamma ray altimeter is used by the returning Soyuz capsule to detect the presence of solid ground immediately ...
11
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1answer
522 views

What are the numbers on the Soyuz docking cam?

This morning I was watching another video of Soyuz docking to the ISS (Expedition 45/Visiting Crew Docks to the Space Station). The commentator noted that the two quantities $\rho$ and $\dot\rho$ in ...
11
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1answer
1k views

Flashing lights on soyuz underside?

Watching the recent landing video of TMA-16M, I noticed a flashing light on the underside of the soyuz (video here). There appears to be an off-centre, bright flash approximately every 10 seconds. ...
11
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1answer
473 views

How much manual flying is done in a modern manned spacecraft?

Considering we live in an age of unmanned spacecrafts, with computers more than capable of managing everything from attitude control, burns, to docking and insanely precise powered landings; how much ...
11
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1answer
984 views

How does the landing accuracy of Dragon (under parachutes) compare to Soyuz?

The Dragon capsule landed yesterday, and I saw this picture of it: Historically, capsules had a rather large uncertainty when landing, especially with parachutes. This picture was obviously taken ...
10
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2answers
4k views

Why will the Orion system land on water, while the Soyuz lands on land?

I wonder why the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will only allow ocean landings while the Soyuz spacecraft is capable of landing on land? Also, what mode of landings does the Chinese space program ...
10
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3answers
4k views

Could a Soyuz land in water?

While watching Soyuz exp. 37/1 land, I was struck with a thought: that capsule looks an awful lot like a submarine. This seems to be a problem if the crew ever needed to make an emergency landing ...
10
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1answer
2k views

Soyuz MS spacecraft battery voltage?

This wikipedia page contains a sentence: A fifth 906V battery with 155 Ampere-hour capacity was added to support the increased energy consumption from the improved electronics. 906 V seems very ...
10
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2answers
3k views

Why does the Soyuz spacecraft's parachute have so many lines?

Image shows a myriad of lines holding down the parachute. I can't even count them all. Is this really necessary? All those strings must surely add a lot of weight to the Soyuz TMA. I would think that ...
10
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2answers
4k views

What is the outside of the Soyuz capsule covered in?

When you look at a Soyuz, it seems like the descent and orbital modules are covered in some kind of fabric-like material. You can see wrinkles and it does not look like traditional metal as you might ...
10
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1answer
697 views

Does Soyuz LES take the service module?

During Jettisonable Emergency Escape Head Section abort mode, the head section of the rocket is separated and pulled away by OGB SAS (the escape tower) to safety away from the malfunctioning lower ...