Questions tagged [temperature]

Questions regarding the amount of heat energy in an environment, as well as how to measure it.

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Confusion between pressure temperature and volume relationship [closed]

i am confused with the basics, So let's say i have a heat transfer fluid ( novec 7100 ) 1 m³ of it in a closed vessel now by raising the temperature to let's say 200°c Will the liquid find equilibrium ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is adiabatic flame temperature the same as nozzle stagnation temperature?

I am trying to understand whether these two concepts are in fact, the same parameter. The way I see it, the adiabatic flame temperature is the highest temperature achieved by stoichiometric combustion ...
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What's the typical temperature of a reactor core in a nuclear thermal rocket?

I am curious of the typical temperature of a nuclear fission reactor in a NTR and I heard that increasing temperature could increase Isp but couldn't find any useful data online. Please provide viable ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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RCS thruster temperature

How fast does an RCS thruster heat up if it's fired continuously? Will it stabilize at a maximum temperature? Does it need to be shut off before it melts itself? What would that temperature be if so? ...
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13 votes
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What caused the JWST Instrument Radiator temperature to start cooling faster on day 34?

As shown on the temperature plots, the D-Instrument Radiator temperature was slowly dropping after sunshield deployment. Around day 34, however, the temperature started to decrease faster than before....
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8 votes
1 answer
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Are JWST displayed temperatures equilibrated to stable?

The JWST vehicle temperature displayed on the Where is Webb site seem to have stabilised. They have not noted a change in several days. Is the current temperature, the stable equilibrated values with ...
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3 votes
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What was the avg temperature of Voyager 1 before it warmed up it’s cameras for the ‘Family portrait’ photo in 1990

In 1990, it took Voyager 1 three hours to warm up its cameras for the Family Portrait photo looking back at our solar system. What was the temperature of the camera before the warm up, or at least the ...
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4 votes
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Why are the JWST sunshield hot side average temperatures cycling?

I've noticed that the JWST hot side sunshield average temperatures were fairly steady during its travel to L2. Now its orbiting at L2 the hot side sunshield average temperatures are cycling? I have ...
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Why does the hot side of the JWST vary so much?

Usually the a sensor is in the low $50s$, yesterday it was $38^\circ C$, and today it is $55^\circ C$. Was it a measuring/reporting anomaly or does it really change that much? Here is the link to ...
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10 votes
3 answers
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Where to find the data to graph JWST temperature since launch?

is there a resource online which shows the evolution of the JWST temperatures through time? I am referring to these shown in the https://jwst.nasa.gov/content/webbLaunch/whereIsWebb.html website: Or, ...
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Effect of temperature on Webb

A small question. I know that Webb should be protected from heat during normal operation because its infrared sensors are sensitive to its own infrared emission. The question is does small degree of ...
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11 votes
2 answers
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Why is the James Webb Space Telescope temperature not shown?

The Where Is Webb page shows an empty temperature tab: Reading the About this Page, it is delayed by 1-2 days after the launch: NOTE: Temperature data will begin updating 1-2 days after launch. ...
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2 votes
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How deep does impact heating penetrate?

Let's say I find a cold rocky body with no atmosphere, and I bombard its surface with breathable air, thus converting the gas's GPE into heat. This will warm the body somewhat (and might initiate ...
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8 votes
1 answer
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How hot do the nose cones of fairings actually get on ascent?

I've been reading into aerodynamic heating of rockets, and it's seemingly a rather complicated topic. It's relatively easy to calculate the stagnation temperature at a given mach number, and that is ...
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3 votes
1 answer
101 views

What are the temperature constraints on various solid rocket boosters?

What are the temperature constraints on various solid boosters/launchers; what are the lowest and highest temperatures they can tolerate? (One answer per booster/launcher/stage)
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3 votes
1 answer
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Measurement and estimation of temperature of Space Shuttle nose cone during launch and re-entry

During the launch and re-entry of the Space Shuttle, what are the measured and estimated temperatures (or distribution) of the shuttle nose cone as a function of altitude? How is the temperature ...
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37 votes
4 answers
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If an astronaut threw a cup of coffee into space, would it freeze, or boil off into gas?

If an astronaut threw a cup of coffee into space somehow, would it freeze into a block, or boil off into gas due to the zero pressure?
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3 votes
1 answer
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Have any Mars surface spacecraft had downward-pointing radiometers to measure the surface temperature? (not air temperature)

NASA's Insight; Weather gives us regular weather updates from Insight's location on Mars, an example is shown below. Temperature is of the air around the lander. Question: But does or has Insight or ...
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6 votes
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From where to get data of the received/measured Moon temperatures of the last 50 years?

Are there any accessible public data or charts of the measured and received Moon temperatures over the years? What is the long term reliability of the instruments installed by the landings? If the (...
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4 votes
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Temperature Differences on Satallites

Some satellites have radioisotope thermal generators. To convert thermal energy to electricity, a temperature difference is required (such as when using a thermocouple). How is a temperature ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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spacecraft thermal dataset

For a high-school academic project, I would like to plot a graph of change in satellite's temperature over time. Thus, (I think), I'm looking for real-time temperature data of sort of any (preferably ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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How are the electronic circuits in interplanetary missions protected from extremely low temperatures?

In an interplanetary mission, a spaceship travels through deep space, where the temperature is almost zero degrees Kelvin, and it is likely that its electronic circuits get permanently damaged. How ...
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2 votes
1 answer
272 views

When does a specific equipment at a certain temperature start to freeze in interstellar space?

This is my first post here. I'm working on a project which involves a number of problems and some parts of that are related to empty space and space exploration. I try to be focused and reflect one of ...
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27 votes
3 answers
8k views

Why exactly do robots freeze? How could we engineer around it?

Moon and Mars rovers go through a lot of trouble to keep themselves heated to avoid "freezing to death". My question is why exactly are all these measures necessary? As in, which components ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Has anyone developed a reliable deep space battery that doesn't need to be kept warm?

Has anyone developed a reliable battery for use in cold deep space applications? Something that doesn't need to be kept warm? For exampe lithium batteries certainly has its constraints due to the ...
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6 votes
1 answer
847 views

Astronauts of Apollo 11 facing extreme temperatures

I recently read that temperatures on the moon can vary from -100 °C in the shade to 100 °C in the sunny part. How did astronaut suits cope with these extreme temperatures? Is the same technology used ...
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1 vote
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Which engine has the highest nozzle wall temperature? [closed]

From all the rocket engines that were used in flight, which one has the highest nozzle wall temperature? The nozzle wall is not heated uniformly. But there are regions where they reach max temperature....
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2 votes
1 answer
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Where does a Falcon-9 get the hottest during launch, and how hot does it get? (aerodynamic heating)

We know there is a Max-Q point1 during a launch, have an approximate altitude, equations for it's pressure value and suspect it lies very near the apex of a rocket's nose. But is there a "Max-T&...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What was the leeward surface temperature of the Apollo Command Module during reentry?

From the Apollo Experience Report: Thermal Protection System, there is a diagram that shows the surface temperatures of the Command Module at various points (image was obtained from this answer). It ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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How to calculate the local maximum solar radiation on Mars from day to day throughout a full martian year?

I would like to know where on Mars the least lowest daily temperatures depending on the time of year will be. At first glance one might think, as I did, that it has to be along its equator, but ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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Taking photos from Venus surface from an airship. Possible?

On planet Venus at ground level temperature level is about 450°C which seems to high for electronic devices such as a camera. Could electronic devices and a camera on a airship just below the clouds ...
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9 votes
2 answers
900 views

How do space blankets (thermal blankets) work?

On earth, blankets serve to primarily buffer temperature changes / heat transfer that would occur via convection (e.g. a blanket traps air near you so that after your body warms it, it doesn't just ...
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4 votes
1 answer
258 views

H2 and CO2 ventilated outboard of the ISS, could become ice flakes in the extreme temperatures outside the ISS?

Outside the ISS in the orbital night, the temperature can reach -250 degrees Fahrenheit (-157 degrees Celsius). The ECLSS (Environmental Control System and Life Support System), more specifically the ...
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Rocket Combustion

How is the chamber pressure is arrived at for a given combustion temperature and mixture ratio ? Based on the mixture ratio, the value of gamma and temperature can be found out, using chemical ...
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4 votes
2 answers
242 views

Surface Rock Temperature of Venus

The average surface temperature of Venus is said to be 460 degrees Celsius. What I'd like to know, is that the temperature of the air in contact with and near the surface, or is that the temperature ...
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12 votes
1 answer
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How do astronauts brew tea on ISS and what brewing temperature is common?

Do astronauts add hot water to a packet that contains a bag with real tea leaves or is it dry tea powder? If they use real tea leaves, what would be the water temperature for the brewing? To get the ...
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6 votes
2 answers
403 views

How hot was the surface of RTG radiator which powered ALSEP on Apollo-12?

The last 5 Apollo missions that landed on the moon (starting from Apollo-12) deployed Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) which was powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) ...
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3 votes
2 answers
211 views

What was pressure and temperature of LM oxygen tanks?

After analysing comments in related question How cryogenic oxygen was heated up for CM cabin repressurization? It appears that LM had oxygen stored as either gas or supercritical fluid but not at ...
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6 votes
1 answer
662 views

How cryogenic oxygen was heated up for CM cabin repressurization?

In related question How was temperature and humidity maintained inside the Apollo mission capsules? the basic concept of conditioning Apollo mission capsules environment is described. After ...
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2 votes
2 answers
228 views

What would be the temperature range measured 2 meters above the Moon's surface? @10m? @50m? [duplicate]

Were there any temperature measurements experiments done on the Moon where the temperature was measured ABOVE the surface for any period of time?
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5 votes
2 answers
322 views

Why was Apollo 11 launched in summer?

The question could seems stupid, but I think that best moment to launch a rocket is when temperature is lowest in order to achieve the best performance in a reaction engine. I do not know if there is ...
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6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Chandrayaan 2: Why is Vikram Lander's life limited to 14 Days?

I do know that the 13-14 days of its scheduled life is limited by the duration of sunlight and once the far side of the moon goes dark, the lander will be in temperatures as low as -170° Celsius. But ...
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8 votes
1 answer
965 views

Why is the Apollo LM landing gear covered with so much thermal insulation?

The Apollo LM landing gear – struts, footpads, shock absorbers and contact probes was completely covered with foils. There should be no temperature sensistive electronics within the landing gear, ...
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9 votes
1 answer
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Did Apollo 13 CM reach thermal equilibrium when it was powered down?

It was reported that the CM cabin temperature dropped to 43°F. Was that the equilibrium, or would it have gotten colder if it had remained in space longer. If that wasn't equilibrium was there an ...
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14 votes
4 answers
7k views

How can electronics on board JWST survive the low operating temperature while it's difficult to survive lunar nights?

Compared to the temperatures encountered in lunar nights, the desired operating temperature of the James Webb Space Telescope is very low. Lunar nights are typically -170°C while the operating ...
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12 votes
3 answers
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What was the temperature of the Apollo 11 moon landing zone?

It's soon 50 years from the Apollo 11 moon landing, so in honor of that event, I decided to post a question here. I understand that moon has due to its long day and long night and also due to the ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Sulphur Hexafluoride atmosphere for Ceres?

So, I have read that the escape velocity of Ceres is 514 m/s, and orbital velocity(for a low orbit) is 360 m/s... Now, the RMS(Root Mean Square) velocity of Sulphur Hexafluoride at 72 $^o$F (23 $^o$C,...
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4 votes
1 answer
343 views

How do you find the temperature of an orbiting aluminum sheet 10x10 cm

I'm trying to find the temperature of a CubeSat in orbit at 140km. I'm trying to use the Stefan-Boltzmann law but don't know how to incorporate the energy from sunlight. I'm using this as a check for ...
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12 votes
2 answers
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Temperature of a satellite orbiting in low Earth orbit

I am working on a project for science fair that involves a deployable component that will not be heated on a CubeSat. I am trying to find data for the skin temperature of a satellite (or the ISS) over ...
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6 votes
2 answers
406 views

How is atmospheric temperature measured from a satellite?

How does an Earth observing satellite measure the temperature of the atmosphere? Can they measure temperature at multiple altitudes, or measure the temperature of clouds?
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