Questions tagged [temperature]

Questions regarding the amount of heat energy in an environment, as well as how to measure it.

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8 votes
4 answers
4k views

Temperature of the moon 4ft off the surface

If the surface of the moon is 100°C, what temperature would it be four feet off the surface, given the vacuum on the moon?
3 votes
0 answers
108 views

Satellite Surface Temperature in Orbit

I am trying to calculate the satellite surface temperature in Orbit for Thermal Tests of our satellite. Referring "Space Vehicle Design, D.Griffin, Ch.9, the equations of heat transfer on the ...
4 votes
3 answers
2k views

Friendly temperatures at day/night junction in Mercury?

Here's my theory : Since a temperature change is generally smooth when you travel, I was wondering that temperatures would be somewhat decent if you were to stay somewhere in the day/night longitude ...
13 votes
1 answer
16k views

If Mars had a denser atmosphere, how warm would it be?

Looking at Venus, Earth and Mars, the closer you are to the Sun the warmer you are. At the same time the warmer planets also have thicker atmospheres. Planet Minimum Maximum Venus 870 °F (465 °C) ...
18 votes
4 answers
4k views

What stages of distress occur to a person when there is a small hull breach in space?

I'm working on a short sci-fi game and I'm curious about how the effects of a hull breach in a confined area play out. For perspective, let's say a very confined space of 100 cubic feet of normal, ...
7 votes
3 answers
5k views

Why is Adiabatic wall temperature taken as the driving temperature in rocket engines?

Going by the definition of convective heat transfer coefficient from Wikipedia (which I have started to doubt; reason follows): $h=\frac{q}{\Delta T}$, where the $\Delta T$ is taken as the difference ...
15 votes
4 answers
8k views

What is the warmest place on Mars?

What is the warmest place on the Martian surface? What temperatures are seen there? (day, night, seasons, etc.) I am asking about weather; not anything out of the ordinary such as a volcano.
20 votes
5 answers
5k views

Would the lunar analogue of geothermal energy be practical on a lunar base?

Given sufficient liquid in the form of water or other suitable medium, would the use of the lunar analogue of geothermal energy be practical or feasible for powering a lunar colony? Wikipedia (...
2 votes
0 answers
186 views

RCS thruster temperature

How fast does an RCS thruster heat up if it's fired continuously? Will it stabilize at a maximum temperature? Does it need to be shut off before it melts itself? What would that temperature be if so? ...
0 votes
1 answer
236 views

How do I convert lux to temperature?

My question: I have a similar question to Is Jupiter bright enough to be seen in color by the naked eye from Jupiter orbit? but from a different perspective: (Sorry in advance if I use any incorrect ...
2 votes
0 answers
453 views

What is the most powerful solid rocket fuel (highest isp) and it's combustion temperature

I wanted to know what the most power full solid rocket fuel is. I do not mean theoretical once like metallic hydrogen. Are solid rocket fuel mixtures prepared in a non-ideal mixture? In other words, ...
4 votes
1 answer
571 views

What factors affect the thickness of EVA spacesuits?

Most current extravehicular activity spacesuits are very thick and chunky, like EMU or Orlan. Even though NASA/MIT work on something thinner (Bio Suit), it's not for EVA in vacuum of space, but for ...
2 votes
1 answer
243 views

What is the exhaust temperature of a liquid oxygen + liquid hydrogen vacuum engine?

Ideally the exhaust of stochiometric liquid oxygen + liquid hydrogen rocket would be fast moving chunks of ice at zero kelvin. In this way all the potential chemical energy in the fuel/oxidizer is ...
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

How is the temperature of motors used in robotic arm and wheels maintained in a martian rover

The electronic components of the mar's rover are protected from external extreme temperatures with the help of WEB warm electronic box. But what about the motors(which is also an electronic component) ...
3 votes
0 answers
126 views

Temperature distribution of air around a rocket

I am doing some simulations in ANSYS Fluent of a rocket traveling at speed of 100 m/s at an altitude of 12000 m where the surroundings temperature is 216.7 K. The image above is the temperature ...
2 votes
1 answer
369 views

Is adiabatic flame temperature the same as nozzle stagnation temperature?

I am trying to understand whether these two concepts are in fact, the same parameter. The way I see it, the adiabatic flame temperature is the highest temperature achieved by stoichiometric combustion ...
16 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is the surface temperature distribution of Venus?

I can find lots of resources stating the average surface temperature. However, I have found conflicting reports concerning the distribution of temperatures on the surface. For example, the Venus ...
3 votes
1 answer
106 views

Have any Mars surface spacecraft had downward-pointing radiometers to measure the surface temperature? (not air temperature)

NASA's Insight; Weather gives us regular weather updates from Insight's location on Mars, an example is shown below. Temperature is of the air around the lander. Question: But does or has Insight or ...
11 votes
1 answer
2k views

What's the typical temperature of a reactor core in a nuclear thermal rocket?

I am curious of the typical temperature of a nuclear fission reactor in a NTR and I heard that increasing temperature could increase Isp but couldn't find any useful data online. Please provide viable ...
6 votes
1 answer
487 views

From where to get data of the received/measured Moon temperatures of the last 50 years?

Are there any accessible public data or charts of the measured and received Moon temperatures over the years? What is the long term reliability of the instruments installed by the landings? If the (...
9 votes
4 answers
855 views

Vehicle liquids freeze on the Moon -- how has this problem been solved?

What methods keep the internal liquids on lunar rovers from freezing? I understand that temperatures on the Moon are extremely low, way past freezing, especially in places where the Sun does not shine,...
6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Astronauts of Apollo 11 facing extreme temperatures

I recently read that temperatures on the moon can vary from -100 °C in the shade to 100 °C in the sunny part. How did astronaut suits cope with these extreme temperatures? Is the same technology used ...
4 votes
1 answer
315 views

H2 and CO2 ventilated outboard of the ISS, could become ice flakes in the extreme temperatures outside the ISS?

Outside the ISS in the orbital night, the temperature can reach -250 degrees Fahrenheit (-157 degrees Celsius). The ECLSS (Environmental Control System and Life Support System), more specifically the ...
3 votes
1 answer
314 views

Measurement and estimation of temperature of Space Shuttle nose cone during launch and re-entry

During the launch and re-entry of the Space Shuttle, what are the measured and estimated temperatures (or distribution) of the shuttle nose cone as a function of altitude? How is the temperature ...
13 votes
2 answers
2k views

What caused the JWST Instrument Radiator temperature to start cooling faster on day 34?

As shown on the temperature plots, the D-Instrument Radiator temperature was slowly dropping after sunshield deployment. Around day 34, however, the temperature started to decrease faster than before....
10 votes
3 answers
2k views

Where to find the data to graph JWST temperature since launch?

is there a resource online which shows the evolution of the JWST temperatures through time? I am referring to these shown in the https://jwst.nasa.gov/content/webbLaunch/whereIsWebb.html website: Or, ...
8 votes
1 answer
766 views

Are JWST displayed temperatures equilibrated to stable?

The JWST vehicle temperature displayed on the Where is Webb site seem to have stabilised. They have not noted a change in several days. Is the current temperature, the stable equilibrated values with ...
3 votes
0 answers
146 views

What was the avg temperature of Voyager 1 before it warmed up it’s cameras for the ‘Family portrait’ photo in 1990

In 1990, it took Voyager 1 three hours to warm up its cameras for the Family Portrait photo looking back at our solar system. What was the temperature of the camera before the warm up, or at least the ...
4 votes
0 answers
129 views

Why are the JWST sunshield hot side average temperatures cycling?

I've noticed that the JWST hot side sunshield average temperatures were fairly steady during its travel to L2. Now its orbiting at L2 the hot side sunshield average temperatures are cycling? I have ...
3 votes
0 answers
104 views

Why does the hot side of the JWST vary so much?

Usually the a sensor is in the low $50s$, yesterday it was $38^\circ C$, and today it is $55^\circ C$. Was it a measuring/reporting anomaly or does it really change that much? Here is the link to ...
3 votes
1 answer
175 views

Effect of temperature on Webb

A small question. I know that Webb should be protected from heat during normal operation because its infrared sensors are sensitive to its own infrared emission. The question is does small degree of ...
11 votes
2 answers
4k views

Why is the James Webb Space Telescope temperature not shown?

The Where Is Webb page shows an empty temperature tab: Reading the About this Page, it is delayed by 1-2 days after the launch: NOTE: Temperature data will begin updating 1-2 days after launch. ...
14 votes
4 answers
7k views

How can electronics on board JWST survive the low operating temperature while it's difficult to survive lunar nights?

Compared to the temperatures encountered in lunar nights, the desired operating temperature of the James Webb Space Telescope is very low. Lunar nights are typically -170°C while the operating ...
12 votes
3 answers
34k views

What was the temperature of the Apollo 11 moon landing zone?

It's soon 50 years from the Apollo 11 moon landing, so in honor of that event, I decided to post a question here. I understand that moon has due to its long day and long night and also due to the ...
2 votes
0 answers
62 views

How deep does impact heating penetrate?

Let's say I find a cold rocky body with no atmosphere, and I bombard its surface with breathable air, thus converting the gas's GPE into heat. This will warm the body somewhat (and might initiate ...
4 votes
5 answers
2k views

Modern ambient temperature rocket fuel?

This question is in regard to rocket propellants that are liquid at room temperature & pressure (not solid fuel, and not liquid hydrogen liquid oxygen, both of which would be gasses at STP). It'...
9 votes
1 answer
745 views

How hot do the nose cones of fairings actually get on ascent?

I've been reading into aerodynamic heating of rockets, and it's seemingly a rather complicated topic. It's relatively easy to calculate the stagnation temperature at a given mach number, and that is ...
0 votes
2 answers
537 views

How to calculate the local maximum solar radiation on Mars from day to day throughout a full martian year?

I would like to know where on Mars the least lowest daily temperatures depending on the time of year will be. At first glance one might think, as I did, that it has to be along its equator, but ...
3 votes
1 answer
126 views

What are the temperature constraints on various solid rocket boosters?

What are the temperature constraints on various solid boosters/launchers; what are the lowest and highest temperatures they can tolerate? (One answer per booster/launcher/stage)
37 votes
4 answers
12k views

If an astronaut threw a cup of coffee into space, would it freeze, or boil off into gas?

If an astronaut threw a cup of coffee into space somehow, would it freeze into a block, or boil off into gas due to the zero pressure?
16 votes
1 answer
643 views

How does solid propellant mean bulk temperature influence solid rocket thrust and specific impulse?

The relationship is not intuitively clear to me, would like an answer with references and/or graphs. The question arose while reading about Space Shuttle's SRBs.
7 votes
4 answers
983 views

Mechanical computing hardware for a future Venusian rover? How does it work?

I don't know why Gizmodo says NASA's Latest Venus Probe Concept Looks Like a Tim Burton Creation, because it looks far more like a Theo Jansen creation! Compare videos below as well. I can understand ...
4 votes
1 answer
67 views

Temperature Differences on Satallites

Some satellites have radioisotope thermal generators. To convert thermal energy to electricity, a temperature difference is required (such as when using a thermocouple). How is a temperature ...
4 votes
2 answers
354 views

Surface Rock Temperature of Venus

The average surface temperature of Venus is said to be 460 degrees Celsius. What I'd like to know, is that the temperature of the air in contact with and near the surface, or is that the temperature ...
2 votes
1 answer
64 views

spacecraft thermal dataset

For a high-school academic project, I would like to plot a graph of change in satellite's temperature over time. Thus, (I think), I'm looking for real-time temperature data of sort of any (preferably ...
2 votes
2 answers
249 views

Has anyone developed a reliable deep space battery that doesn't need to be kept warm?

Has anyone developed a reliable battery for use in cold deep space applications? Something that doesn't need to be kept warm? For exampe lithium batteries certainly has its constraints due to the ...
2 votes
1 answer
292 views

When does a specific equipment at a certain temperature start to freeze in interstellar space?

This is my first post here. I'm working on a project which involves a number of problems and some parts of that are related to empty space and space exploration. I try to be focused and reflect one of ...
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

How are the electronic circuits in interplanetary missions protected from extremely low temperatures?

In an interplanetary mission, a spaceship travels through deep space, where the temperature is almost zero degrees Kelvin, and it is likely that its electronic circuits get permanently damaged. How ...
27 votes
3 answers
8k views

Why exactly do robots freeze? How could we engineer around it?

Moon and Mars rovers go through a lot of trouble to keep themselves heated to avoid "freezing to death". My question is why exactly are all these measures necessary? As in, which components ...
6 votes
2 answers
727 views

How is atmospheric temperature measured from a satellite?

How does an Earth observing satellite measure the temperature of the atmosphere? Can they measure temperature at multiple altitudes, or measure the temperature of clouds?