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Questions tagged [temperature]

Questions regarding the amount of heat energy in an environment, as well as how to measure it.

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Is the cupola, on the inside of the ISS, cold or warm to the touch?

Does the temperature of the surface of the cupola vary when the ISS is in Earth's shadow, compared to when it is on day side of the Earth? Is it cold to the touch when the ISS in the shadow?
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Why are the rovers finding the long Lunar night difficult to overcome?

Compared to Martian nights, Lunar nights are long and cold. This has posed a lot of challenges in the past. What specific challenges does long duration night pose? What are the methods to over come? ...
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1answer
88 views

How often does a geostationary satellite enter into a Lunar shadow?

Is there a chance for the many geostationary satellites to enter into the moon’s shadow? If so, how frequently do such eclipses happen and how long do they typically last? Are such eclipses pre-...
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1answer
235 views

What is the surface temperature distribution of Venus?

I can find lots of resources stating the average surface temperature. However, I have found conflicting reports concerning the distribution of temperatures on the surface. For example, the Venus ...
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2answers
142 views

Friendly temperatures at day/night junction in Mercury?

Here's my theory : Since a temperature change is generally smooth when you travel, I was wondering that temperatures would be somewhat decent if you were to stay somewhere in the day/night longitude ...
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Air temperature and humidity inside the ISS

The International Space Station being an artificial habitat for humans; it seems reasonable to assume the air temperature, and humidity levels are maintained at well-defined levels. What are the air ...
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1answer
115 views

Spacesuit needed for 1 psi 100% methane atmosphere - 60 Fahrenheit?

What sort of spacesuit would an astronaut need if she were to walk on a planet with a 1 psi (0.07 ATM) 100% methane atmosphere and -60°F (-50°C) temperatures?
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1answer
80 views

Why is Adiabatic wall temperature taken as the driving temperature in rocket engines?

Going by the definition of convective heat transfer coefficient from Wikipedia (which I have started to doubt; reason follows): $h=\frac{q}{\Delta T}$, where the $\Delta T$ is taken as the difference ...
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1answer
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What's the typical temperature of a satellite orbiting the Earth?

I've been reading about "cryogenic" vs. "storable" propellants, and specifically the issue of boil-off: If the storage temperature gets above the propellant's boiling point, the propellant boils off ...
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Temperature indicators/labels on space debris?

There was a picture in this question about space debris on shore. Seems to be a part of a Falcon 9. The round stickers are used for temperature control. Similar labels are sold by some companies, for ...
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1answer
269 views

Parker Solar probe's heat survival - Heat vs Temperature

This is not about about heat shields, materials, coolant, etc. I am not quite not getting the science that explains the Heat Vs Temperature, which is how the Parker probe is going to survive the ...
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1answer
347 views

Temperature and pressure of rocket exhaust

What is the temperature and pressure of the exhaust that comes out of the rocket during the last three seconds of countdown (smoke that stays near ground)? How much carbon dioxide is there in that ...
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1answer
96 views

Filling the propellants in the rocket tanks

After putting the rocket on the launch pad the propellants are filled. But before that how to maintain the lower temperatures of the tanks so that when filling the propellants don't boil off?
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Why cool engines with fuel as opposed to oxidizer?

As I was watching Tom Mueller describe the Merlin engine, he said that the RP-1 propellant is pumped through ribs in the nozzle to regeneratively cool the engine. Also, a video about Copenhagen ...
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How cold are the Voyagers now? Colder than LOX? Colder than SOX?

The MHW-RTG model Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators on the two Voyager spacecraft started out at about 1000C and 300C on the hot and cold sides, but will have dropped somewhat due to slow decay ...
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3answers
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Are the mountains of Venus of any help for us to explore the surface?

The circular orbit and small axial tilt results in no seasons, coupled with the well-known strong greenhouse that makes nights just as hot as days. As pressure gets lower by height, so does ...
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1answer
330 views

How to calculate the stagnation temperature at the tip of the nose of a reentry module?

A re-entry module flies with Mach 10 at an ambient temperature of –27°C with. CP = 840 J/kg-K, gas constant R = 140 J/kg-K. What is the stagnation temperature at the tip of the nose of the re-entry ...
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Why does the ISS need thermal blankets if the Sun is hot?

If space is cold at 2.7 Kelvin and heat can't escape in a vacuum then why is the ISS wrapped in space blankets if the sun is hot?
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3answers
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How does an atmospheric probe measure temperature during descent?

I heard that the Galileo spacecraft sent Galileo Probe into Jupiter, and it reported temperatures reaching 153 degrees Celsius. The question is, when you send a probe crashing into a planet that has ...
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1answer
134 views

Why is the cold of space a danger to satellites?

Recently, I have been learning about satellites present in space, and one of the discussions was the danger of the variance of temperatures, as space can be both incredibly hot and cold. I understand ...
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1answer
158 views

What is the solar flux on Titan?

I' trying to solve for the surface temperature Ts=((n+1)So(1-A)4)1/4, and thus So=L/4𝞹a2 but I cannot seem to find the value for solar flux or its luminosity.
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3answers
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What is the warmest place on Mars?

What is the warmest place on the Martian surface? What temperatures are seen there? (day, night, seasons, etc.) I am asking about weather; not anything out of the ordinary such as a volcano.
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4answers
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Modern ambient temperature rocket fuel?

This question is in regard to rocket propellants that are liquid at room temperature & pressure (not solid fuel, and not liquid hydrogen liquid oxygen, both of which would be gasses at STP). It'...
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2answers
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Would a mars base need to expel excess heat?

I've read that on Mars you lose 30% of your heat through convection and 70% through black body radiation. (The much lower amount from convection due to the tenous atmosphere vs. Earth.) http://www....
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1answer
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Could a probe fly through the Sun's transition zone between chromosphere and corona?

I wonder if a cryogenically cooled probe could fly very fast tangentially pass the Sun and through its transition zone where the temperature drops to below 6 000 K, from millions in the corona. What ...
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1answer
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Temperatures in “near” space compared to LEO

I've been reading about High Altitude Balloons (HAB) lately, and it seems that they take much greater pains to fight cold temperatures than cubesats do. Loads of insulation, especially on batteries, ...
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Is it possible to orbit around the Sun within a “safe temperature zone”?

The closer a body is to the Sun, the warmer it becomes. Is it possible to find a certain trajectory around either the Sun or any star, on which the temperature is constantly between, for example, 20 ...
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1answer
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How much temperature control would an EVA suit on Mars need?

The average surface temperature on Mars is -55°C and it can go down to -130°C. These are temperatures which sound deadly at first. But on the other hand, the atmospheric pressure on Mars is just 0.63% ...
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3answers
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Mechanical computing hardware for a future Venusian rover? How does it work?

I don't know why Gizmodo says NASA's Latest Venus Probe Concept Looks Like a Tim Burton Creation, because it looks far more like a Theo Jansen creation! Compare videos below as well. I can understand ...
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2answers
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How is heat dissipated from a satellite or any metal in space?

All the artificial satellites launched in space have a series of solar cells attached to them. When in use, these panels absorb a lot of radiation from the Sun and put it to use. So, do these panels ...
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2answers
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How can any probe be safe at one million degree Centigrade temperature?

Even after going straight inside the sun's corona, how can Solar Probe Plus be safe at the one million degree Centigrade temperature of the sun's corona ?
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1answer
118 views

Could a Sun shield keep a rover cool daytime on Mercury?

If a rover on Mercury "roves" only at night when the surface is freezing cold, and before dawn unfolds a Sun shield of a few square meters above itself, under which it stays put all day. Would the ...
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0answers
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How does “temperature” work in vacuum? [duplicate]

To conduct heat, a medium is required (e.g. Atmosphere) But at higher altitudes atmosphere is too thin, yet Wikipedia states temperatures in the thermosphere can rise to 2,000$^{\circ}$C ...
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2answers
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In an ion thruster, does the temperature of the plasma drop after acceleration?

In the last discussion on why ion thrusters are so energy hungry(Why are Ion Thrusters so energy hungry?), people said that the system is not only supposed to ionize the gas but also heat it to ...
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3answers
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If 'space' is defined as the absence of everything, then why can it carry heat? [closed]

I apologize if this question is confusing, I will try to clarify a little... so, this is talking about 'space' in the form of space that exists outside of our atmosphere. Outer space. I once read ...
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3answers
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Would it be possible to power a Venus lander using a temperature differential?

Venus has an average surface temperature of 735K. Would it be possible to harness this extreme temperature and use it to generate electricity? After all, that's the principle a radioisotope ...
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1answer
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Does the temperature near the surface of the Moon rise rather quickly with depth?

I have heard presentations on lunar lava tubes that estimated the temperatures of the ground surrounding them as being well below zero. An article in NASA Science News says this: Once you get down ...
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1answer
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How can I find a daily record of the temperature on Mars?

Does any probe or lander track the temperature on Mars, and is this data published anywhere? I recall the MGS used to issue a "Martian Weather Report", but it has ceased operating.
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2answers
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Objects hotter at their poles than their equators?

Do we know of any astronomical objects--planets, dwarf planets, moons, etc.--that have a higher average temperature at their poles than on their equator? If we haven't observed this, is it still a ...
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3answers
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Would temperatures be more stable under the surface of Mercury?

Mercury, being right around than 55,000,000 km away from the Sun, gets hot. As in very hot - 700 °K hot (426 °C and 800 °F). Not a place you would want to live. On the flip side, the side of Mercury ...
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2answers
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How can a sounding rocket accurately take the temperature of the atmosphere while flying through it at high speed?

A sounding rocket is a rocket that ascends into the high atmosphere in order to take all sorts of measurements so we can learn more about the upper atmosphere. They don't go into orbit, so they can be ...
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1answer
4k views

What's the average temperature on the surface of ISS (International Space Station)

The ISS is about 330-410 km above earth surface and within the thermosphere layer, in which according to Wikipedia the temperature can reach 1500 °C. However the gas inside this layer is highly ...
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1answer
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If Mars had more atmosphere how warm would it be?

Looking at Venus, Earth and Mars, the closer you are to the sun the warmer you are. At the same time the warmer planets also have thicker atmospheres. ...
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4answers
4k views

Why do some space telescopes require cooling (sometimes down to 3K)?

Space is already cold, so why do some space telescopes require cooling? Ex: infra-red telescope What kind of cryocoolers are used, and why?
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1answer
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Is utilizing the high temperature for chemical reactions on Venus a feasible way of generating electricity?

I assume utilizing habitats floating high in the Venus atmosphere as described by Geoffrey Landis. So weight, size etc is a constraint, and we will not be operating at the surface with the crushing ...
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1answer
3k views

What is the temperature inside a methane/oxygen rocket engine?

Assuming a simple rocket engine, with a combustion chamber and de laval nozzle, fueled by liquid methane and liquid oxygen, what temperature must the combustion chamber, choke and nozzle withstand? ...
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1answer
370 views

How much heat did the Sabatier hardware add to the ISS heat profile?

A sort-of follow-up to Why does the International Space Station produce so much methane? In 2010 Sabatier hardware was integrated into the regenerative environment control. The Sabatier hardware ...
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2answers
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How is heat in space dissipated?

This doesn't make sense to me. How is this radiation given off? Is it a natural phenomenon helped along by using certain materials, or an active system? How are "heat radiating fins" possible in deep ...
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0answers
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What factors affect the thickness of EVA spacesuits?

Most current extravehicular activity spacesuits are very thick and chunky, like EMU or Orlan. Even though NASA/MIT work on something thinner (Bio Suit), it's not for EVA in vacuum of space, but for ...
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1answer
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Can the Philae lander survive one orbit of 67P? [duplicate]

The Aphelion of Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko is about 5.6829 AU. It has a orbital period of 6.44 years. If it stays on the comet for the entire period of its orbit, can it be usable when it is in the ...