Questions tagged [temperature]

Questions regarding the amount of heat energy in an environment, as well as how to measure it.

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30
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3answers
5k views

Why cool engines with fuel as opposed to oxidizer?

As I was watching Tom Mueller describe the Merlin engine, he said that the RP-1 propellant is pumped through ribs in the nozzle to regeneratively cool the engine. Also, a video about Copenhagen ...
29
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2answers
3k views

How can a sounding rocket accurately take the temperature of the atmosphere while flying through it at high speed?

A sounding rocket is a rocket that ascends into the high atmosphere in order to take all sorts of measurements so we can learn more about the upper atmosphere. They don't go into orbit, so they can be ...
24
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2answers
22k views

How is heat dissipated from a satellite or any metal in space?

All the artificial satellites launched in space have a series of solar cells attached to them. When in use, these panels absorb a lot of radiation from the Sun and put it to use. So, do these panels ...
23
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2answers
26k views

Air temperature and humidity inside the ISS

The International Space Station being an artificial habitat for humans; it seems reasonable to assume the air temperature, and humidity levels are maintained at well-defined levels. What are the air ...
23
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2answers
748 views

Is the cupola, on the inside of the ISS, cold or warm to the touch?

Does the temperature of the surface of the cupola vary when the ISS is in Earth's shadow, compared to when it is on day side of the Earth? Is it cold to the touch when the ISS in the shadow?
19
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3answers
588 views

Would temperatures be more stable under the surface of Mercury?

Mercury, being right around than 55,000,000 km away from the Sun, gets hot. As in very hot - 700 °K hot (426 °C and 800 °F). Not a place you would want to live. On the flip side, the side of Mercury ...
18
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3answers
4k views

Why does the ISS need thermal blankets if the Sun is hot?

If space is cold at 2.7 Kelvin and heat can't escape in a vacuum then why is the ISS wrapped in space blankets if the sun is hot?
18
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2answers
1k views

How can any probe be safe at one million degree Centigrade temperature?

Even after going straight inside the sun's corona, how can Solar Probe Plus be safe at the one million degree Centigrade temperature of the sun's corona ?
17
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4answers
5k views

Why do some space telescopes require cooling (sometimes down to 3K)?

Space is already cold, so why do some space telescopes require cooling? Ex: infra-red telescope What kind of cryocoolers are used, and why?
17
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1answer
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How much temperature control would an EVA suit on Mars need?

The average surface temperature on Mars is -55°C and it can go down to -130°C. These are temperatures which sound deadly at first. But on the other hand, the atmospheric pressure on Mars is just 0.63% ...
15
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1answer
35k views

What's the typical temperature of a satellite orbiting the Earth?

I've been reading about "cryogenic" vs. "storable" propellants, and specifically the issue of boil-off: If the storage temperature gets above the propellant's boiling point, the propellant boils off ...
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2answers
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What would determine the interior temperature of a large space station?

If one calculates the black-body temperature of an object in space, it turns out that it would be at room temperature somewhere between the orbits of Earth and Venus. But due to the greenhouse effect, ...
14
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3answers
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What is the warmest place on Mars?

What is the warmest place on the Martian surface? What temperatures are seen there? (day, night, seasons, etc.) I am asking about weather; not anything out of the ordinary such as a volcano.
12
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2answers
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Temperature of a satellite orbiting in low Earth orbit

I am working on a project for science fair that involves a deployable component that will not be heated on a CubeSat. I am trying to find data for the skin temperature of a satellite (or the ISS) over ...
12
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1answer
2k views

How do astronauts brew tea on ISS and what brewing temperature is common?

Do astronauts add hot water to a packet that contains a bag with real tea leaves or is it dry tea powder? If they use real tea leaves, what would be the water temperature for the brewing? To get the ...
12
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1answer
506 views

What is the surface temperature distribution of Venus?

I can find lots of resources stating the average surface temperature. However, I have found conflicting reports concerning the distribution of temperatures on the surface. For example, the Venus ...
11
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1answer
4k views

What is the temperature inside a methane/oxygen rocket engine?

Assuming a simple rocket engine, with a combustion chamber and de laval nozzle, fueled by liquid methane and liquid oxygen, what temperature must the combustion chamber, choke and nozzle withstand? ...
10
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2answers
267 views

How can I find a daily record of the temperature on Mars?

Does any probe or lander track the temperature on Mars, and is this data published anywhere? I recall the MGS used to issue a "Martian Weather Report", but it has ceased operating.
10
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2answers
1k views

How cold are the Voyagers now? Colder than LOX? Colder than SOX?

The MHW-RTG model Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators on the two Voyager spacecraft started out at about 1000C and 300C on the hot and cold sides, but will have dropped somewhat due to slow decay ...
10
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1answer
10k views

If Mars had more atmosphere how warm would it be?

Looking at Venus, Earth and Mars, the closer you are to the sun the warmer you are. At the same time the warmer planets also have thicker atmospheres. ...
10
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1answer
1k views

Are there seasons on Luna?

I saw a comment that made me curious. The Earth's axis tilt is about 23.4°, whereas Luna's is only 1.54°. There is negligible atmosphere on Luna, and as far as I know although signs of water ...
10
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1answer
418 views

How much heat did the Sabatier hardware add to the ISS heat profile?

A sort-of follow-up to Why does the International Space Station produce so much methane? In 2010 Sabatier hardware was integrated into the regenerative environment control. The Sabatier hardware ...
9
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2answers
672 views

How do space blankets (thermal blankets) work?

On earth, blankets serve to primarily buffer temperature changes / heat transfer that would occur via convection (e.g. a blanket traps air near you so that after your body warms it, it doesn't just ...
9
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1answer
179 views

Did Apollo 13 CM reach thermal equilibrium when it was powered down?

It was reported that the CM cabin temperature dropped to 43°F. Was that the equilibrium, or would it have gotten colder if it had remained in space longer. If that wasn't equilibrium was there an ...
9
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2answers
537 views

Would a mars base need to expel excess heat?

I've read that on Mars you lose 30% of your heat through convection and 70% through black body radiation. (The much lower amount from convection due to the tenous atmosphere vs. Earth.) http://www....
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4answers
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How can electronics on board JWST survive the low operating temperature while it's difficult to survive lunar nights?

Compared to the temperatures encountered in lunar nights, the desired operating temperature of the James Webb Space Telescope is very low. Lunar nights are typically -170°C while the operating ...
8
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1answer
663 views

Why is the Apollo LM landing gear covered with so much thermal insulation?

The Apollo LM landing gear – struts, footpads, shock absorbers and contact probes was completely covered with foils. There should be no temperature sensistive electronics within the landing gear, ...
8
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2answers
8k views

What was the temperature of the Apollo 11 moon landing zone?

It's soon 50 years from the Apollo 11 moon landing, so in honor of that event, I decided to post a question here. I understand that moon has due to its long day and long night and also due to the ...
8
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1answer
7k views

What is the temperature variation between the lunar day and night on the moon?

What is the approximate temperature and what factors cause this variation?
8
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1answer
179 views

Could a probe fly through the Sun's transition zone between chromosphere and corona?

I wonder if a cryogenically cooled probe could fly very fast tangentially pass the Sun and through its transition zone where the temperature drops to below 6 000 K, from millions in the corona. What ...
7
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1answer
264 views

How are base temperature units found on other planets?

On Earth, our temperature scales are calibrated based on some universal (on Earth) values. For example, 212°F and 100°C are defined as the temperature water boils at sea level. How are these ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Chandrayaan 2: Why is Vikram Lander's life limited to 14 Days?

I do know that the 13-14 days of its scheduled life is limited by the duration of sunlight and once the far side of the moon goes dark, the lander will be in temperatures as low as -170° Celsius. But ...
6
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1answer
344 views

Parker Solar probe's heat survival - Heat vs Temperature

This is not about about heat shields, materials, coolant, etc. I am not quite not getting the science that explains the Heat Vs Temperature, which is how the Parker probe is going to survive the ...
6
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3answers
572 views

How does an atmospheric probe measure temperature during descent?

I heard that the Galileo spacecraft sent Galileo Probe into Jupiter, and it reported temperatures reaching 153 degrees Celsius. The question is, when you send a probe crashing into a planet that has ...
6
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1answer
641 views

How cryogenic oxygen was heated up for CM cabin repressurization?

In related question How was temperature and humidity maintained inside the Apollo mission capsules? the basic concept of conditioning Apollo mission capsules environment is described. After ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Does the temperature near the surface of the Moon rise rather quickly with depth?

I have heard presentations on lunar lava tubes that estimated the temperatures of the ground surrounding them as being well below zero. An article in NASA Science News says this: Once you get down ...
6
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1answer
253 views

Temperature of the area behind a reenty vehicle

The area in front of a vehicle re-entering the atmosphere is elevated mostly because of the high pressure of the shock wave leading it. Given the space immediately behind the vehicle is not being ...
6
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1answer
2k views

Why is Adiabatic wall temperature taken as the driving temperature in rocket engines?

Going by the definition of convective heat transfer coefficient from Wikipedia (which I have started to doubt; reason follows): $h=\frac{q}{\Delta T}$, where the $\Delta T$ is taken as the difference ...
5
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2answers
278 views

Why was Apollo 11 launched in summer?

The question could seems stupid, but I think that best moment to launch a rocket is when temperature is lowest in order to achieve the best performance in a reaction engine. I do not know if there is ...
5
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3answers
789 views

Mechanical computing hardware for a future Venusian rover? How does it work?

I don't know why Gizmodo says NASA's Latest Venus Probe Concept Looks Like a Tim Burton Creation, because it looks far more like a Theo Jansen creation! Compare videos below as well. I can understand ...
5
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2answers
154 views

How is atmospheric temperature measured from a satellite?

How does an Earth observing satellite measure the temperature of the atmosphere? Can they measure temperature at multiple altitudes, or measure the temperature of clouds?
5
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2answers
214 views

How hot was the surface of RTG radiator which powered ALSEP on Apollo-12?

The last 5 Apollo missions that landed on the moon (starting from Apollo-12) deployed Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) which was powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) ...
5
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1answer
283 views

Is utilizing the high temperature for chemical reactions on Venus a feasible way of generating electricity?

I assume utilizing habitats floating high in the Venus atmosphere as described by Geoffrey Landis. So weight, size etc is a constraint, and we will not be operating at the surface with the crushing ...
4
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3answers
319 views

Are the mountains of Venus of any help for us to explore the surface?

The circular orbit and small axial tilt results in no seasons, coupled with the well-known strong greenhouse that makes nights just as hot as days. As pressure gets lower by height, so does ...
4
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2answers
3k views

Is it possible to orbit around the Sun within a “safe temperature zone”?

The closer a body is to the Sun, the warmer it becomes. Is it possible to find a certain trajectory around either the Sun or any star, on which the temperature is constantly between, for example, 20 ...
4
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2answers
600 views

Friendly temperatures at day/night junction in Mercury?

Here's my theory : Since a temperature change is generally smooth when you travel, I was wondering that temperatures would be somewhat decent if you were to stay somewhere in the day/night longitude ...
4
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1answer
6k views

What's the average temperature on the surface of ISS (International Space Station)

The ISS is about 330-410 km above earth surface and within the thermosphere layer, in which according to Wikipedia the temperature can reach 1500 °C. However the gas inside this layer is highly ...
4
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1answer
180 views

Sulphur Hexafluoride atmosphere for Ceres?

So, I have read that the escape velocity of Ceres is 514 m/s, and orbital velocity(for a low orbit) is 360 m/s... Now, the RMS(Root Mean Square) velocity of Sulphur Hexafluoride at 72 $^o$F (23 $^o$C,...
4
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1answer
149 views

How do you find the temperature of an orbiting aluminum sheet 10x10 cm

I'm trying to find the temperature of a CubeSat in orbit at 140km. I'm trying to use the Stefan-Boltzmann law but don't know how to incorporate the energy from sunlight. I'm using this as a check for ...
4
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1answer
109 views

Can the Philae lander survive one orbit of 67P? [duplicate]

The Aphelion of Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko is about 5.6829 AU. It has a orbital period of 6.44 years. If it stays on the comet for the entire period of its orbit, can it be usable when it is in the ...