Questions tagged [the-sun]

Questions regarding the Sun, or Sol in Latin, the star at the center of the solar system Earth is in.

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9
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2answers
1k views

Did any spacecraft ever use the Sun's gravity for acceleration?

Space probes often use planets to accelerate onto a trajectory towards their goal(s) without having to consume too much fuel. But the fastest acceleration would be made through the Sun's gravity if ...
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2answers
84 views

Why did ESA's Solar Orbiter mission's target inclination drop from 34 to 25°?

Wikipedia says that: During the planned 7-year mission the orbital inclination will be raised to about 25° But the information below shows that originally the target final inclination was much ...
2
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1answer
121 views

How strong is Sun magnetic field on Moon surface? And on Mars?

I wan to calculate the voltage difference generated by sun EM Field on a wire placed on Moon or Mars surface, but I can't find consistent data about solar EM Field. I found different values: The ...
2
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1answer
133 views

Space and Newton laws

I've read some articles which explain that we can't totally rely on Newtonian gravity concepts for understanding the motion of objects in space. My question is how the use of relativity helps us to ...
2
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3answers
323 views

What is the gravitational acceleration of the Sun?

What is the gravitational acceleration of the Sun? I've seen numbers such as 274 m/s2, but that doesn't make sense to me seeing that relatively weak sources of spacecraft thrust such as Electric ...
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2answers
192 views

Is the Heliosphere as elliptical as this graphic suggests?

I noticed the following graphic being used in an article discussing the Voyager probes. It also appears on Wikipedia's Heliosphere page: The same page states that: On a broader scale, the motion ...
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0answers
55 views

Will ESA's Solar Orbiter crash into Venus? If so, why?

The BBC News article European SolO probe ready to take on audacious mission links to the ESA video shown below and contains this 5 minute audio interview with NASA deputy project scientist on the ...
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2answers
46 views

What is ESA's Solar Orbiter's target inclination?

The BBC News article European SolO probe ready to take on audacious mission links to the ESA video shown below and contains this 5 minute audio interview with NASA deputy project scientist on the ...
0
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1answer
42 views

How to deteremine the angle between Sun and 2 probes?

I have the orbital position and velocity and the orbital parameter of 2 spacecraft at LEO, how to define the angle between Sun - Probe 2 - Probe 1 in ECI frame (If you imagine at a point sun then ...
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1answer
77 views

What happens if you put rings with the mass of several suns around a black hole? [closed]

Can someone also explain to me what happens from 7:24 to 9:20 (basically he creates a sun, locks it in place, the sun starts absorbing the black holes' rings and growing, it starts dropping pieces of ...
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2answers
6k views

Has any object launched from Earth gone into the Sun?

I've seen a lot of questions about the $\Delta V$ required to reach the Sun from the Earth (~22-30 km/s if I remember correctly), firing a bullet into the sun, etc. But has this ever happened? Has ...
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3answers
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Is it really ~648.69 km/s delta-v to “land” on the surface of the Sun?

According to the following diagram it would require ~648.69 km/s to do all of the intermediate transfers that would land you at or around the sun's surface at perigee. Is this a real number? How would ...
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1answer
89 views

Main issues space telescopes face when pointing in the same general direction as the Sun?

What are the main issues that space telescopes face when pointing at objects that are in the same general direction as the Sun? Why do they generally schedule their observing for objects in the ...
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1answer
105 views

PIR application as a sun sensor

Is there any history or merit to using a PIR (Pyroelectric ("Passive") InfraRed Sensor) as a sun sensor for determining the attitude or position of a Satellite?
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2answers
272 views

What Gravity does the Sun affect items with at the distance of 1 AU?

At the surface of the Earth, the force of gravity is defined as 1 G. I am wondering what gravitational force the sun excerts at the distance of 1 AU (the distance Earth is at). Imagine it like this; ...
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1answer
150 views

How would molten or liquid metal be transported in open space? [closed]

How to transport a ball of liquid, molten metal nearest to the Sun possible? It must be close to the Sun for the metal to stay molten. However, to stay safely cool enough, the spacecraft must always ...
2
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2answers
272 views

What is the shielding capability of liquid metal compaired to solid metal?

For simplicity, consider a spherical metal shape for shielding cargo/people behind. (The liquid ball is supposed to be between the Sun and the cargo. Not people inside it.) A problem I see is that it ...
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2answers
184 views

Is a solar free-return trajectory possible?

I'm coining a new phrase: "Dyson circuit". Is it possible, with current solar orbital capabilities (see Parker Solar Probe), to drive artificial satellites in a free-return trajectory around the Sun? ...
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2answers
56 views

How do scientists determine how big a certain star is? [closed]

I was just wondering, many people say that there are stars that are waay bigger than our sun and in some videos they even try to say the exact diameter of the Sun, but I was wondering: How can ...
2
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1answer
136 views

How cold was it in the shade of the Parker solar probe?

What was the temperature in the shade of the Parker solar probe? Do to the proximity at the closest point the probe got to the Sun how much shade can be produced at that range?
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0answers
84 views

What is the effect of a solar flare on electronics on the surface of Mars?

Mars has practically no magnetosphere. Where does the impact of a solar flare on the electronics of Mars landers and rovers fall along the scale of nothing to EMP?
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1answer
336 views

Liquid shield for spacecraft? [closed]

Could an alloy of hot or cold liquid metal be made magnetic by adding electricity to the molten ball to give it magnetic properties to wirelessly attach it to a space craft to use as a shield shown in ...
2
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1answer
244 views

Parker Solar probe jumping through fire?

Is the principle of passing close the Sun with the Parker Solar probe the same as if you pass your hand over a candle flame fast enough you won't get burned?
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1answer
2k views

Could we possibly see the shadow offset from Parker Solar probe on Earth?

The closer an object to the source of light, the larger the shadow it casts. Parker Solar probe would fly within 3.7 million miles (6 million kilometers) of the sun's surface. It sounds quite far ...
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0answers
454 views

Could the sun be used as a super-amplifier for SETI transmissions? [closed]

I just want to know if there is any scientific merit to this, the premise of Cixen Liu's novel, "The Three-Body Problem". English translation published in 2016. See also Tor.com: Cixin Liu’s Award-...
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2answers
277 views

How would a Jupiter flyby have helped to get to the Sun? Why was it later ruled out?

The quote below surprised me. What were the orbital mechanical details of using a Jupiter flyby to get a probe from Earth so close to the Sun? Was a "U-turn" possible; single flyby of Jupiter into a ...
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2answers
157 views

Lighting an area of the Earth Surface from LEO

What does the math look like to calculate the size of an object in LEO that when angled off the sun, would illuminate a given portion of the Earth's surface? For example, if I wanted to "light up" a ...
9
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1answer
665 views

Is it possible to reach the Sun without expending any fuel/reaction mass?

Imagine that I'm designing a space probe, that will initially be placed into an Earth-like orbit around the Sun. My goal is to have the probe fly/fall into the Sun; it's allowed to take as much time ...
6
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1answer
333 views

Parker Solar probe's heat survival - Heat vs Temperature

This is not about about heat shields, materials, coolant, etc. I am not quite not getting the science that explains the Heat Vs Temperature, which is how the Parker probe is going to survive the ...
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2answers
72 views

Can the Sun's magnetic field be used to propel a solar satellite?

Can diamagnetic materials or a diamagnetic devise be used to propel using the magnetic field of the Sun in a solar polar magnetic assisted slingshot?
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3answers
213 views

What is the Lux value of the Sun and Earth in Low Earth Orbit (altitude=400 km)?

I'm the Attitude Control System team lead on a cube satellite project, and we're trying to use cheap lux sensors to determine the body sun vector (vector adding the lux from each sensor). I want to ...
25
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3answers
4k views

What would happen if a satellite took a direct hit from a coronal mass ejection (CME)?

I was wondering what would happen if the average satellite were hit by an average CME. According to wikipedia the average velocity of a CME is 20 to 3,200 km/s. In addition to this it's super-heated, ...
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3answers
754 views

Is a sun-blocking orbit possible?

Is it possible for an orbital "sun shade satellite" to have a geosynchronous equatorial orbit such that it is in an approximately straight line between the Sun and a fixed point on the Earth's ...
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1answer
248 views

Could a spacecraft be propelled by the deflection of a very high number of charged particles?

I am wondering if a spacecraft could be propelled through interplanetary space via the deflection and/or displacement of a very high number of charged particles contained within the Sun's solar wind. ...
4
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1answer
160 views

What are the problems that need to be taken in consideration when trying to find planetary position by using jpl ephemerides?

I'm currently trying to determine the position of the sun and the moon from jpl ephemeris DE200 which is referred to the dynamical equator and equinox of 2000 and uses tdb time. I am using the j2000 ...
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2answers
822 views

Solar Flux on Mars Surface

Considering that the Solar Flux on top of Mars' atmosphere is 590 W/m2 (following the 1/r^2 relation for sunlight), how much of this incident light actually arrives to Mars. In other words, what is ...
2
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1answer
244 views

How quickly is the force of gravity exerted? Is a finite “speed of gravity” used in orbit calculations?

So I was reading a post of "What would happen if the sun disappeared". An excerpt: After eight minutes, the Earth would not only lose the sun's light and heat, but also its gravitational influence. ...
2
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1answer
123 views

Is communication from a spacecraft in SEL1 disturbed by the Sun?

A spacecraft at the Sun Earth Lagrange point one (1% of an AU, or one Solar diameter, from Earth towards the Sun) would have the Sun as its background. Is the Sun emitting strongly enough at ...
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3answers
4k views

Why does the ISS need thermal blankets if the Sun is hot?

If space is cold at 2.7 Kelvin and heat can't escape in a vacuum then why is the ISS wrapped in space blankets if the sun is hot?
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2answers
364 views

How can a solar storm be predicted?

Satellites like DSCOVR are used to predict solar storms. How does that work? If the satellite is orbiting L1 and "watches" the sun, how can the signal be back on earth before a storm arrives? How ...
3
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0answers
118 views

What's the rationale behind the false colours in solar observation photographs? [closed]

Images from SOHO, SDO and other sun observatories are often coloured differently for different wavelengths or temperatures: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/science/Sun-Wavelength-Chart....
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1answer
165 views

Could a probe fly through the Sun's transition zone between chromosphere and corona?

I wonder if a cryogenically cooled probe could fly very fast tangentially pass the Sun and through its transition zone where the temperature drops to below 6 000 K, from millions in the corona. What ...
6
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2answers
461 views

Which spacecraft will be the first for which the Sun would become the second brightest object in the sky?

Which spacecraft will be the first for which the Sun would become the second brightest object in the sky? When that will happen and how far? What would be the most efficient direction to fly in ...
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4answers
3k views

Is oxygen present in the sun? [closed]

If there is no oxygen in the sun, then how is it burning? My question may be weird but I need a realistic answer for that.
4
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1answer
357 views

How much radiation shielding would be required for a habitat at Mercury–Sun L5?

Given an O'Neill "Island Three" style cylindrical habitat located at Mercury–Sun L5 orbit, how much radiation shielding would be required to protect the occupants, and how would it need to be ...
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3answers
1k views

What dangers are astronauts exposed to when facing the sun?

In this live stream, we have an astronaut facing the sun (we've seen his hands actually): I thought people doing an EVA should avoid the sun at all cost, but here he's facing it. From what kind of ...
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1answer
220 views

Does Sunlight have a range? [closed]

If you switch on a lightbulb in a room its light has a visible range. So how about Sunlight? Does it light more on Mercury and less on Pluto? And what about planets that are not in the Solar System?
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1answer
167 views

Why is one of the foci of the ellipse of the trajectory of a space rocket in the center of the sun?

According to a book I am currently reading, space rockets and ballistic rockets fly along an elliptic path. However they differ in where the focus of the ellips describing their path lays. For space ...
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1answer
1k views

How to check, if there is currently an increased solar activity?

I've got an email, that because of the increased solar activity, more cosmic ray-s are hitting the earth. And for this reason, humans experience more stress and headache. I know, it's not true. But I ...
5
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1answer
469 views

What are these dark lines in IRIS images of the sun?

Dark, narrow, straight lines move around within images from Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in such a way that they appear intentional and systematic, and not just some imaging artifact ...