# All Questions

10,659 questions
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### Did the heat shield of the Vostok 1 capsule ablate during reentry?

This Wikipedia article (in german) has some information about the heat shield of Vostok 1. The heat shield was made from asbestos, its thickness was increased from 3 cm to up to 18 cm. The weight of ...
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### How much did it cost to refurbish the Launch Complex 39 hardware after an Apollo Saturn V launch?

A launch pad used for a rocket of some 30-35 MNewtons of thrust does not come out of it unscathed. It must be refurbished before it can be used again. How much does that cost? As an indication of such ...
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### How can I calculate the azimuth from an earth station to a satellite

I have computed the ecef coordinates of both the user location on the ground, the satellite's ecef coordinates, as well as other inputs such as altitude, lat, long of both satellite and earth station....
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### What was the exact nature of the observations of “solar flare activity” that delayed the launch of Vostok 5?

The interesting story of Vostok 5 recounted in Encyclopedia Astronautica's Vostok 5 (linked in comments below this answer) includes the following passage: Vostok 5 was originally planned to go for ...
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### How accurate can a point in space be determined by the likes of the ICRF?

How accurately could a 3D point in open space (i.e. not on an object), say at an elevation of 30,000m above sea level, be located or modelled using the likes of the International Celestial Reference ...
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### What's this mini-cupola-looking object in this photo from the ISS?

(I went through this exercise for my own benefit, so I figured I'd post it) Recently stay-extended astronaut Christina Hammock Koch posted this image to Facebook today and the object indicated by the ...
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### Why was the Communications Carrier Assembly black and white?

I understand the CCA, the headset for NASA astronauts, was made up of lycra and teflon fabrics. Is there a reason, relevant to space flight, that the two materials were different colors?
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### Noise inside an ACES/pumpkin suit helmet?

As I understand it there was plenty of noise inside a NASA EVA suit helmet from fans circulating the air. Was the Advanced Crew Escape Suit helmet for launch and reentry similarly noisy?
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### Would SpaceX's Starlink constellation contribute inordinately to space debris?

I mean they already launched a large constellation of 60 satellites and have plans to launch many more; won't all this contribute inordinately to existing space junk, which is actually becoming a real ...
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### How did the Vostok ejection seat safely eject an astronaut from a sealed space capsule?

Wikipedia's Yuri Gagarin says: At about 23,000 feet (7,000 m), Gagarin ejected from the descending capsule as planned and landed using a parachute. and the section Vostok_programme; Vostok 3KA ...
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### How exactly were solid-fuel rockets added to the parachute lines of the Voskhod capsule?

This answer notes that Voskhod: ...added a small solid-fuel rocket to the parachute lines. It fired as the descent module neared touchdown, providing a softer landing. How exactly did they safely ...
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### When did soviet capsules begin using retropropulsion immediately before landing?

Wikipedia's Yuri Gagarin says: At about 23,000 feet (7,000 m), Gagarin ejected from the descending capsule as planned and landed using a parachute. and the section Vostok_programme; Vostok 3KA ...
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### Launch Azimuth for Southeast launches

I've got the formula for launching to space going Northeast as $$\cos(inc) = \cos(lat) \sin(az)$$ and that works great but what if I wanted to go southeast? For example, I know that from a ...
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### Cubesat Communication Problems [on hold]

Can anybody tell me what are the current problems faced in cubsats especially in communications domain ? Can anybody please provide me some insights ?
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### Oxidizer Line Pressure of DIY Hybrid Rocket Engine Limits Thrust?

So I’ve seen engines like these which use gaseous oxygen as an oxidizer and then a solid tube as a fuel. But do these types of hybrid engines have any possibility of creating a useful amount of thrust?...
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### Why does the Falcon 9 launch heavier payload in LEO than Ariane V and the other way around for GTO?

Browsing a comparison of orbital launch systems on wikipedia, I notice that launcher capable of launching payload in GTO can launch in GTO approximately all the mass of the payload they can launch in ...
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### What preparations would Hubble have needed to return in a Shuttle?

This answer states that the Hubble Space Telescope was originally intended to be returned to Earth in a Shuttle. (from shuttle manifest published immediately before the Columbia failure, showing the ...
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### At the same temperature, what's the relation of speed of heat loss between Earth and Mars?

Mars has a thinner athmosphere than Earth. Let's say you have a similar shelter of the same volume and made of the same materials in Mars at -70 Celsius, and in Earth in some place in the Antarctica ...
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### How much of the recovery system does Spacex remove from a Falcon 9 when using it in an expended manner?

Falcon 9s have a limit to how many times they can be reused, and, for the last flight of a booster they don't make it land (in one piece), and instead use all the fuel to help the payload. That way ...
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### Shirtsleeves environment in Martian caves [duplicate]

Are there currently any places on Mars (that we know of) that are deep enough and warm enough that a human could survive with only an oxygen mask? Are there any caves, trenches, or valleys deep enough ...
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### Could the Lunar Rover jump start the Lunar Module in an emergency?

In Scott Manley's video Why Lunar Landers Had Jumper Cables For Emergencies he describes the "LOSS OF ED [Explosive Device] SUB-SYSTEM" procedure, which includes the use of a jumper cable called the "...
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### Converting Keplerian coordinates into Latitude and Longitude

Introduction My goal is follow up the title of this question and obtain the Earth coordinates (latitude, longitude) from the keplerian coords ...
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### Space Software Engineering [on hold]

I am a software engineer having experience in application development in IT industry. I have completed M.Tech.in Computer Science from IIT. Khabe skills and worked on following: Java Jsp Servtlet ...
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### Time at 1 g acceleration to travel 100 000 light years

How long would it take to go 100,000 light years at a constant 1 g acceleration?
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### Do astronauts floating in space experience disorientation and how do they overcome it?

Sometimes we experience confusion where the north or south is especially when we are lying down or just awoken from sleep. Do astronauts experience something similar in space? If so, how do they ...
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In an article on the Space.com website, the author states "Very few astronauts have what's called the 'lead head'--immune from space adaptation syndrome or space sickness." I couldn't find any other ...
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### What will TransAstra Corp's MiniBee practice its Optical Mining technique on?

Space.com's NASA Eyes Wild Space Tech Ideas to Mine the Moon (and Asteroids, Too!) says: The other project is called Mini Bee and is led by Joel Sercel, founder and CEO of TransAstra Corp. Mini Bee ...
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### Precisely when did the Shuttle's roll program occur?

Previous answers state that the Shuttle launch roll program occurred as soon as practical after tower clear and was achieved by SRB thrust vector control. Can we get a more precise answer on the ...
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### ACES helmet and space sickness

I thought I read somewhere that when astronauts removed the ACES helmet it often exacerbated space sickness. ACES (Advanced Crew Escape Suit)-the orange suit worn during shuttle launches Is there ...
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### How many stages needed for a launch ? How to plan a launch

I am looking on how to find out how many stages are needed to reach a certain orbit. I come across equations to compute the height reach by a stage of a certain time. On the other hand I don't find ...
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### At what point of a standard transition from Earth to Mars do both planets have the same apparent magnitude, and what's its value?

Apparent magnitude is meant with respect to the crew of the vehicle. For the trajectory, please pick any that can be considered normal. Also, it would be nice to have comparisons with other objects ...
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### Is there any use for the “main body tool” of the BFR, now that the design has switched from carbon fiber to steel?

As far as I know, the BFR's main body tool was supposed to serve as a positive mold for the carbon fiber structure. Now that the design is deprecated and that SpaceX is building Starhopper without ...
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### F9 - Lift Off from “Landing Legs” [duplicate]

Could it ever be possible for Falcon 9 to lift off from its own "landing legs"? i.e. no strongback, no complex launch pad support, just land somewhere, get a new second stage and a tank of gas and off ...
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### Why a polar orbit for TWINKLE?

TWINKLE will use a 0.45 meter telescope to record spectra of stars transited by their exoplanets. By looking at tiny changes in the spectrum as the planet's atmosphere moves in front of the star, they ...
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### Does anyone recognize these rockets, and their location?

I clicked an advertisement in the sidebar of an Economist article and it took me to this infomercial from Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Group's Spectra website How new technology is democratizing access ...
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### Why does the F9 second stage roll back and forth during deployment of each RADARSAT satellite?

GIF Watching the SpaceX video RADARSAT Constellation Mission after T+ 52:00 we can see at least the first two satellites deploy. In each case, the second stage ...
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### Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin mass anomaly, how to reconcile “isostatic equilibrium” with “heavy metal not sinking”?

The recent Phys.org piece Mass anomaly detected under the moon's largest crater is a review of a recently published and paywalled Geophysical Research Letter Deep Structure of the Lunar South Pole‐...
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### How soon was the Garn scale of nausea established after the senator's spaceflight?

Then-Senator Jake Garn flew on Shuttle mission STS-51-D in April 1985. He developed the worst documented case of space adaptation syndrome, for which an informal unit of space sickness was named ...
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### What, if any, effect does the Martian magnetic field have on dust storms?

Since we know most dust particles on Mars are magnetic, I was wondering if they might be affected by the Martian magnetic field. Can the Martian magnetic field have any effect on the spatial ...
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### Can artificial satellite positions affect tides?

The Moon's position affects tides. So, is there any possibility for man-made satellite positions to also affect tides?
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### Transfer between circular orbits in up to 5 maneuvers

There are 2 circular orbits with different inclination and RAAN. I have to transfer from a specific point (true anomaly given) of one orbit to a given point of another in 1 month. The period of the ...
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### Cost to move to Mars [closed]

First we must assume that Spacex continues to operate in the same way that its running. Once they start building a colony for people to visit or move to. What do you think it would cost to be one of ...
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### How was the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin mass anomaly discovered?

A large mass has been discovered beneath the largest crater in our solar system -- the Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin -- and may contain metal from the asteroid that crashed into the Moon and formed ...
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### Is there an archive/database of ISS telemetry over time?

I'm trying to find a database of the ISS's telemetry (specifically, its pitch and yaw) over time. All I've found so far is live streaming, like http://www.telemetry.space/, which gives the realtime ...
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### How accurately can you determine time from planetary/star positions?

I was reading this question which has to deal with the accuracy of on-board atomic clocks. In the question it mentions multiple times that only recently did we start including accurate enough clocks ...
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### Help understanding exactly how an atomic clock facilitates “self-driving spacecraft” when paired with an onboard camera?

The TechCrunch article NASA details Deep Space Atomic Clock and other tests launching on SpaceX Falcon Heavy says: Jill Seubert, Deep Space Navigator for NASA, explained that this is the world’s ...
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### How do flags behave on the Moon?

I have seen many theories and question/answers on this site touching upon this subject but no focused question. So I would like to ask this as a two part question. Is what we saw in the Lunar ...
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### How to implement SGP4 C++, satellite propagator?

I would like to ask about how to implement the SGP4 code in C++ by Vallado. How can I implement the libraries that are available in https://celestrak.com/software/vallado-sw.php. I think that are the ...