# All Questions

10,227 questions
88 views

### What is the point in which metal turns white hot during launch or reentry called?

This is a slow motion film of the Sprint missle. There is a point where to skin goes white hot like a light switch. What is that called? What metal gets white hot while keeping its shape?
133 views

### What went wrong during SpX-DM1

Several times since SpaceX's Crew Dragon Demo-1 Mission, I have seen allusions to a minor fault. For example, a recent article about a comparable product mentions that After its largely successful ...
8k views

### If human space travel is limited by the G force vulnerability, is there a way to counter G forces?

I read somewhere that prolonged G forces (even 2 Gs) are not tolerated by human physiology and that this ultimately limits our ability to sustain space travel. Are there any tactics to reduce G force ...
88 views

### Does NASA needs ecologists? If yes, whats the salary of an ecologist? [closed]

I'm in grade 12 and I'm about to go to Ecology college after this graduation, and I was wondering if nasa needs ecologists or no, and what is the salary for a ecologist. Questions: Does NASA ever ...
28 views

### How video projection screen is used in test of Europa Clipper's high gain antenna?

Phys.org's Europa Clipper high-gain antenna undergoes testing says: The full-scale prototype antenna, which at 10 feet (3 meters) tall is the same height as a standard basketball hoop, is in the ...
594 views

### Does GPS spoofing ever come from space? How are spoofings usually detected?

The BBC News article Study maps 'extensive Russian GPS spoofing' says: (GPS spoofing) involves the state using strong radio signals to drown out reliable navigation data, says non-profit C4ADS. ...
182 views

### How does the US's 2008 debris cloud compare to India's 2019 and China's 2007 contributions?

The NPR News article NASA: Debris From India's Anti-Satellite Test Raised Threat To Space Station discusses last week's antisatellite test by India described further in answers to India just shot down ...
1k views

### What are the G forces leaving Earth orbit?

What were the G forces experienced by the Apollo astronauts during the translunar injection burn? Was there a lot of vibrations during the TLI burn? Is there estimates of the G forces an astronaut ...
129 views

### What is Space Policy Directive 3 and how does it relate to the Space Fence?

In response to a question about the recent ASAT test by India producing a new debris field in LEO, Patrick Murphy, Director of Strategy, Planning, & Integration for NASA Space Technology Mission ...
6k views

### Could the museum Saturn V's be refitted for one more flight?

Even though we will not build new Saturn Vs, there currently exist three Saturn Vs in museums. Could any of these rockets be refitted for flight? If not, what specific component would prevent the ...
4k views

### What is required to make GPS signals available indoors?

GPS satellites don't transmit strong enough to reach indoors, through the roofs and walls of buildings, like cell phones do. GPS signals that enter buildings through windows are unreliable since they ...
71 views

### Propagating satellites without TLE in python

I know how to propagate satellites in python using ephem module (that uses TLE data). However, I am not sure how I would do the same for my own set of orbital ...
111 views

### Are there “Space Jellyfish” in Florida? Would they be possible?

The Wikipedia article Space Jellyfish shows the image below with the caption: A California space jellyfish from 22 December 2017 I think that when other Q&A here have shown similar space ...
43 views

### Maximum speed based on atmospheric altitude given maximum temp?

I saw the question Could escape velocity be achieved in the atmosphere? and thought it probably could've been asked better. I'm sure there's an equation to calculate the average heat generated by an ...
45 views

### How to replace and refurbish the EMU suit used at the ISS?

If new parts for the EMU suits should be transported to the ISS they may use the Progress cargo space ship. But what about return of used suit parts to ground for refurbishment? A Progress cargo ship ...
98 views

### Finding Earth-Centered Coordinates of Periapsis

I am currently writing a program that accepts a state vector, calculates the corresponding Keplerian ellipse, and then draws the ellipse. But I'm stuck at the following point. I currently need some ...
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### How can I change plane (inclination and OMEGA) during a bielliptical transfer?

I'm trying to minimize deltav in a transfer between two elliptical orbits. The 'standard' strategy the professor provided consists in a change of inclination and RAAN and then a bielliptical or ...
43 views

### What do the axis labels mean in this plot (apparently from Sutton 8th edition)?

In the Analytical Graphics Inc. video Low-Thrust Space Trajectory Design and Optimization the speaker Pradipto Ghosh of AGI shows a slide at around 07:00 shown ...
64 views

### How do NASA staff ask the director questions using “Social Q&A”?

In Scott Manly's new video Updates - JPL Visit, Mars 2020, Moon in 5 Year, EVA Changes, Indian ASAT after about 01:30 he shows a screen shot of some kind of ...
83 views

### How old are the EVA space suits that are currently used on the ISS?

Scott Manly says in his new video Updates - JPL Visit, Mars 2020, Moon in 5 Year, EVA Changes, Indian ASAT after about 03:25 that the EMUs that NASA uses are ...
61 views

### How are interplanetary spacecraft protected from biological contamination while being integrated on their launchers?

After having been disinfected in some NASA lab for forward planetary protection reasons, how are spacecraft stored and brought to the launch pad and loaded into the fairings, in order to prevent them ...
255 views

### Can more thrust come from launching parallel to water?

Would having the exhaust of a rocket or air breathing engine in an early stage in close proximity to water on a horizontal launch provide more thrust? Could a rocket launch off water horizontally in ...
84 views

### Could a satellite in GEO-orbit make an evasive maneuver to avoid an anti-satellite impactor?

Communication satellites orbit at an altitude a couple of hundred times above the satellite that the Indian government recently shot down. Also GPS-satellites are about one hundred times further up ...
119 views

### Is GEO redundant (Geo- and Earth)? Would we call a Lunasychronous Lunar orbit LLO?

I think the title of the question Is it possible to establish a synchronous lunar orbit without using Lagrange points? is absolutely clear; it's an orbit around the Moon that is synchronous to the ...
54 views

### What are the chances a space probe will make it to another star without hitting a bit of space dust?

tl;dr: What is the density of "space dust" or micrometeorites in interstellar space, and how likely is it that a tiny interstellar craft could avoid hitting any? In a future time we will likely ...
128 views

### Could a rocket launch off water horizontally in stages us using water and air for lift to save fuel? [duplicate]

A term I have heard is the "water was like class". Meaning that the water had 0 waves. Could a rocket be modified to take off a horizontal surface starting slowly increasing throttle on each stage? ...
207 views

### Can a flock of birds crash a rocket?

Has there ever been a situation when birds caused damage to a rocket? At what speed would birds be a problem? Could a rocket launch off water horizontally in stages?
6k views

### Would a grinding machine be a simple and workable propulsion system for an interplanetary spacecraft?

I am wondering if any space agency has ever considered using a grinding machine as a propulsion system for an interplanetary spacecraft. This system would not be used to lift the spacecraft off of a ...
162 views

### Could escape velocity be achieved in the atmosphere?

When rockets launch for orbit they travel up and the air thins respectively to the speed increasing. How fast can a rocket for travel at sea level before it would fail or the elevation would have to ...
155 views

### Does it make sense to invest money on space investigation? [closed]

I recently saw this picture - drawn by the excellent Spanish cartoonist 'El roto' Translated (please, don't hesitate to edit the question if you find a better translation) They looked for signals ...
126 views

### Break Away Valves for Launch [duplicate]

I forgot to hang up the fuel pump and broke it off and costed around 80 dollars to replace. While there I wandered could this be adapted to a rocket in some way? How much fuel capacity would be saved ...
76 views

### Is it possible to establish a synchronous lunar orbit without using Lagrange points? [closed]

I find this interesting, and so far haven't found anything in an internet search.
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### How to find T₀ and other parameters from a TLE to calculate an approximate mean anomaly?

The equation for mean anomaly is $$M = \sqrt{\frac{\mu}{a^3}} (t-T_0)$$ How could I extract information from a TLE in order to calculate a mean anomaly? Would I use this equation, or something ...
51 views

### Did the Titan II GLV execute a roll program?

I'm working on an edit for the Wikipedia article on the roll program that some rockets used when getting into orbit. I found a good reference for the Saturn V, but the article's original authors claim ...
37 views

### What is happening with Zero2Infinity and the Bloostar?

I'm reading about the unconventional technology of Zero2Infinity's balloon-launched Bloostar rocket. It looks a bit like a jellyfish shooting through the sky. But it's hard to find much information ...
92 views

### What happened to Starlite? [closed]

I was talking to a person (lets say his name is Tim) that when Tim was a child he remembered in a grade school demonstration on this Starlite material (Starlite is a material claimed to be able to ...
184 views

### Why is the Falcon Heavy interstage not black?

Falcon Heavy has two side boosters that are essentially standard Falcon 9 lower stage with a nose cone, along with a black interstage, as seen below. But the renders that SpaceX shows of Falcon Heavy ...
75 views

### What rocket system launch contained the highest amount of propellent potential energy?

In regards to rocket launches, what rocket launch contained the most potential energy (joules/btu/etc.) in its thrust propellant to achieve is basic mission? I'm not as much concerned with ...
91 views

### Alternative tests for A-SAT missiles

Keeping the strategic consequences of blowing up an actual satellite as technology demonstration aside, I want to assess it from a purely scientific/technological standpoint. To demonstrate the ...
111 views

### What steel ball was thrown out of the ISS to help test how well ground stations can track orbital debris?

The question What kinds of things have been tossed out of the ISS? has a broken YouTube link. This is why it's good to include at least the name of the video in your post (which I didn't back in 2016)....
76 views

### Is it possible to change to different orbit inclinations with a simple push?

Supposedly launching to different orbital inclinations is quite difficult, with launchers trying to launch from different launch sites to using mid air launches to avoid geographic restraints. If a ...
79 views

### How did scientists experimentally confirm that Saturn's ravioli-shaped moons had highly porous surfaces?

The NASA News article NASA's Cassini Finds Saturn's Rings Coat Tiny Moons says: The new research, from data gathered by six of Cassini's instruments before its mission ended in 2017, is a clear ...
49 views

### Stabilizing Mars wobble, before terraforming

So, Has anyone addressed the wobble and any possibility of doing the mathematics of how our Moon stabilizes the Earth, based on it's relative size and shape, and any other variables, and try to ...
62 views

### Calculate Date of Spring Equinox, possibly using JPL's Horizons website?

I'm familiar with orbit ephemerides and the ways to use those to plot orbits and positions. However, in all the charts I find, I can't seem to find a way to determine when an equinox on another planet ...
209 views

### Would the Space Shuttle External Tank have made orbit as a VT SSTO with 6 SSMEs?

Dropping the external boosters and also the entire 75-100 ton orbiter from the picture, would the tank all by itself have made orbit? This would require bolting at least 5, better 6, perhaps even 9 ...
124 views

### How many female astronauts have worn the large space suit on a space walk?

The recent all-female spacewalk was canceled because Anne McCain felt the medium sized suit was the correct choice for her for safety reasons, and there weren't enough medium sized suits. Of course, ...
136 views

### Is a solar free-return trajectory possible?

I'm coining a new phrase: "Dyson circuit". Is it possible, with current solar orbital capabilities (see Parker Solar Probe), to drive artificial satellites in a free-return trajectory around the Sun? ...
62 views

### How frequenty have space walkers been changed based on space suit configuration?

On Friday, March 29, two astronauts were supposed to conduct what would have become the first all female space walk, Christina Koch and Anne McClain. After her first space walk on March 22, Anne ...