The initial Lunar orbit was roughly 100x300 km, with the further point being at the far side. From the mission transcripts, we learn of a request to photograph the Moon at the terminator, at the far side (Because there was no communication with Earth) Using this simple calculator, I find that only 7% of the Moon's surface would have been visible at 300 km. The full map of the Far Side can be seen below:
Lastly, I've found that 10:30 is supposed to be the direction of Lunar north in the image.
A few things stick out to me. First of all, I believe the entire image is not the far side. In fact, I believe the left most edge is actually the Near Side, as the far side doesn't have many mares, and the line between the two is near perfect. In any case, I can't see the exact spot this photograph was taken from, but it seems likely from everything I've found it was taken at 300 km, and is only a small part of the far side of the Moon.
EDIT: After doing quite a bit of digging around, I've found the source for this image. It turns out it wasn't taken by an astronaut at all, but rather by an instrument known as the Mapping Metric camera, which was used to map the Moon for Apollo 15-17. The film was retrieved in a short EVA on the way home from the Moon. It seems this was one of the photographs taken on the way home from the Moon, as it is one of the last in the series. You can see the entire series at the Apollo Digital Archive website. The time of the photograph isn't recorded that I can find anywhere. The last photograph before it that has a time is 3000, 1972-04-24T23:32:28, which starts to show the curvature of the Moon. I believe what actually happened is the Lunar return trajectory started on the far side, and came along a course that allowed for much of the dark side to still be seen.