The initial Lunar orbit was roughly 100x300 km, with the further point being at the far side. From the mission transcripts, we learn of a request to photograph the Moon at the terminator, at the far side (Because there was no communication with Earth) Using this simple calculator, I find that only 7% of the Moon's surface would have been visible at 300 km. The full map of the Far Side can be seen below. It looks like the far side, and the scale is clearly different, but it doesn't seem to be a factor of 7 that would be required!
Lastly, I've found that 10:30 is supposed to be the direction of Lunar north in the image.
A few things stick out to me. First of all, I believe the entire image is not the far side. In fact, I believe the left most edge is actually the Near Side, as the far side doesn't have many mares, and the line between the two is near perfect.
After doing quite a bit of digging around, I've found the source for this image. It turns out it wasn't taken by an astronaut at all, but rather by an instrument known as the Mapping Metric camera, which was used to map the Moon for Apollo 15-17. The film was retrieved in a short EVA on the way home from the Moon. It seems this was one of the photographs taken on the way home from the Moon, as it is one of the last in the series. You can see the entire series at the Apollo Digital Archive website. The time of the photograph isn't recorded that I can find anywhere. The last photograph before it that has a time is 3000, 1972-04-24T23:32:28, which starts to show the curvature of the Moon. I believe what actually happened is the Lunar return trajectory started on the far side, and came along a course that allowed for much of the dark side to still be seen. Trans-Earth Injection happened at 25 Apr 1972 02:15:33. Likely the photo was taken slightly after TEI, although I can't find the timeline more accurately than that. The photos can be seen to slowly get further away from the Moon, starting at 3000. Before that, they were taken about every 30 seconds. They stopped taking pictures per the standard plan, but at 200:33 they turned the camera back on for a while. That was 10 minutes after the TEI, which seems like it would be in a good place to capture the pictures they returned of the "far side" of the Moon. It was on for about 2 hours, until about 202:55. For certain at some point during that time a "global" view of the Moon would be visible, and towards the earlier portion the far side should be visible. I can't find the altitude vs time, but this now all makes sense!