I would like to know if the Space Shuttle orbiters would have been capable of utilizing the  that  Buran HLV instead  of the External tank/SRB configuration. And if so, could the Buran have been modified to use a parachute recovery system or to utilize the DCX/Clipper Graham tested vertical rocket landing method now, being used by Space X with their Falcon 9 booster?

This architecture would have at least prevented orbiter loss from insulation breaking off and damaging the tiles. Of course this would have required a steep learning curve for NASA, as well as flight testing the new system, however it would have at least preserved the orbiters as a viable delivery and space operations and maintenance platform for several more decades, until a truly reusable  SSTO/TSTO system could be developed.