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25

Reaction control system jet interactions with a vehicle's aerodynamic flowfield can be counterintuitive. Here's a capsule simulation results graphic showing similar spreading effects below the jet as well as laterally (from the first link below). This paper states in reference to Apollo: Interference heating in the case of the yaw and roll jets covered ...


7

The heat protection material on the Vostok spacecraft is a resin-drenched asbestos fabric. https://habr.com/ru/post/230445/ Heat protection was mainly asbestos fabric, impregnated with bakelite resin. The maximum thickness of thermal protection in the frontal part was 110 mm, and the minimum - 40 mm in the rear. http://epizodsspace.airbase.ru/...


5

As there's no answer for a long time, I've done some research with help of the links provided by others in the comments to the questions. And the "first" goes to ... Soviet Union. In short: US got a head start with the blunt object theory, but in terms of heat shielding got diverted to less efficient "heat sink" path, wasting some time before employing ...


5

There would be thrust but it is going to be very slight. This is basically a rocket where there is no nozzle, so looking at specific impulse the exhaust velocity would be defined by velocity of the evaporating molecules (100s of meters per second)*sin45 due to the random departure direction time the mass per second of ablation. If you wanted to improve this,...


2

The ablator is more to protect the structure itself than the propellant quality/boil-off. Ablator was used in certain areas of the shuttle External Tank for this reason. This quote from "A Technical History of the External Tank" (not online) describes the initial design which didn't include the complete covering of the tank with the classic orange foam. ...


2

Here are some desirable properties of an ablator. The first ones are they you mentioned, with some additional detail. A sublimation point lower than the operation temperature is a must. An ablator that does not evaporate is not an ablator. The shield has to loose some mass in order to get rid of the added energy, in contrast to for example the tiles of the ...


1

I don’t think you can separately consider just the ablative products. There’s a region of high pressure hot gas that’s decelerating the total mass of the craft. That pressure is providing the force. The pressure in turn is made up of the motion of molecules from both the ablative material and (mostly) the incident gas. That pressure profile is almost ...


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I asked, and Tory actually answered April 6, but Twitter didn't send notices, I wasn't paying close attention, and I wasn't really sure how it worked. Anyway, I found it today, and I don't think he really answered the specific question, but this is what he said. Tory Bruno Verified account @torybruno Apr 6 Replying to @GregHan21100390 Any insulation is ...


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