286

Since the Apollo 11 code is on GitHub, I was able to find the code that looks like an implementation of sine and cosine functions: see here for the command module and here for the lunar lander (it looks like it is the same code). For convenience, here is a copy of the code: # Page 1102 BLOCK 02 # SINGLE PRECISION SINE AND COSINE ...


194

This is the Apollo 11 photo designated AS11-40-5925, a popular shot with moon landing deniers. The camera is facing generally north-north-west. The sun is low in the sky, about 10º-15º above the horizon on the east. The silver pole in the upper right of the photograph is pretty much straight up, casting shadow in the expected direction. The landing leg in ...


163

The photo (frame 3021) appears to have been taken from an approximate altitude of 1180 KM, on the return journey to Earth. We infer it was taken on the return journey as frame 3005 was taken after trans-Earth injection. And, presumably, by "Revolution: TE" in the image's information. The image information tells us the photo was taken by the Metric/Mapping ...


154

Fun question! Provided the three Lunar Roving Vehicles (LRV) left on the surface of the Moon by the last three Apollo program missions were not, tongue-in-cheek, towed away for unpaid parking, reckless driving and littering fines, or clamped by the Lunar people (not to be confused with Lunatics), I don't see why not, provided you have brought along all the ...


147

The following is a speech written for President Nixon, in the event that the Apollo 11 mission did not succeed. Fate has ordained that the men who went to the moon to explore in peace will stay on the moon to rest in peace. These brave men, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, know that there is no hope for their recovery. But they also know that there is hope ...


105

NVIDIA rendered Aldrin descending to the surface and discovered that, just as the conspiracies claimed, it couldn't be reproduced with direct light from the sun as the sole light source. Of course, as in photos on Earth, indirect light (reflected, scattered...) is an important source of scene illumination and must be taken into account. After adding the ...


99

Probably, but you likely wouldn't drive it away. Not only will the batteries be completely discharged, but the rovers have gone through a large number of lunar days since then, creating a large thermal cycle. The number of thermal cycles is on the order of 500 for each one, and the cycles are brutal, going from -150C to as high as 120C each time. Even ...


95

The film gets this mostly right. Merely taking the thrust, and, therefore, the acceleration of the rocket down to zero wouldn't throw the astronauts forward; there are a couple of other effects at work. The first is air resistance; 1st-stage cutoff happens at about 42 mi (68 km) altitude, where there's still some air; this will decelerate the vehicle but not ...


93

They were part of an active seismic imaging experiment (archived version on wayback) By setting up a seismometer and setting off surface explosions of known size, you can get a lot of information about how shockwaves propagate underground, from which you can infer structure.


83

If you want to get really bummed out for 'what could have been', check out the Wikipedia page for List of manned Mars mission plans. The earliest plan to get to Mars was written by von Braun in 1948, with the idea that we would be landing in 1965. With our current knowledge of Mars, it reads like science fiction. Seven passenger ships and three cargo ships ...


77

The Apollo spacecraft consists of three major parts: The Command Module (CM), a conical module where the three crew members live during launch from Earth and travel to and from the moon, and which re-enters Earth's atmosphere alone at the end of the trip; The Service Module (SM), a cylindrical section containing fuel, power, life support, communications, a ...


75

Hobbes' answer focuses on why we might want to build SLS. There are also significant barriers to rebuilding Saturn/Apollo. In addition to the (vast) amount of existing technical documentation on those designs, there's a (probably vaster) pool of knowledge that the individuals who actually built the things collected during the process. Nearly all of those ...


73

One thing to note is that these polls of the room are largely for-the-record - in other words, if a flight controller was sitting on a problem that would prevent the accomplishment of a major milestone, and didn't tell Flight about it until the poll, that flight controller would not be in MCC for their next shift. That said, and apologies because it's ...


72

Apollo 11 mission had two modules Lunar module - which descent to moon carrying two astronauts command / service module- CSM was designed to return astronauts from the lunar surface on a direct-descent mission to earth and splash down. Direct telecast from the Command service module is not possible but CSM stored the recording of conversation which is ...


72

The signal from the Moon was received using giant parabolic antennas, e.g. the 64-m dish at the Parkes observatory. These have very good sidelobe rejection so they won't pick up any Earthbound signals. Despite the space race, relations with their biggest enemy were good enough that the Russians shared Luna 15's flight plan with the Americans when this ...


72

No. Planting a flag was the idea of NASA's "Mr. Fix-It", Jack Kinzler, less than 4 months before Apollo 11's launch: Kinzler believed that the people of the United States would also want to see an American flag to commemorate the enormous achievement of landing a man on the surface of the moon. The original LM design had an American flag painted on the ...


68

The ascent engine was normally fired when the LM was sitting on the moon's surface, so the tankage was subjected to about 1/6 $g$, more than sufficient to separate the dense liquid fuel from the helium pressurant. Once the engine was ignited, its own thrust accelerating the spacecraft would maintain the ullage. The same question could well be asked of the ...


68

During the Apollo era, Deke Slayton, as chief of the astronaut office, was the primary decision maker when it came to choosing who was assigned to which crews. Slayton was chosen for the Mercury program but was grounded due to a heart issue. Since he had been through astronaut training, but wasn't in competition for a mission assignment himself, he was ...


64

The Neil Armstrong's "First step on the Moon" was filmed by a camera installed on the MESA (Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly) at the side of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) descent stage that Neil Armstrong had to pull a lanyard to unlock the pallet and make it drop open. A switch inside the LM, operated by Buzz Aldrin, then activated the TV camera which ...


64

Although the temperature at altitude can be several thousands of degrees, the atmosphere is so thin it does not transfer heat efficiently. Wikipedia explains it very well - The highly diluted gas in this layer can reach 2,500 °C (4,530 °F) during the day. Even though the temperature is so high, one would not feel warm in the thermosphere, because it is ...


64

Gray tape was used during the Apollo missions, although only mentioned specifically by that name twice. The stowage manifests have several entries for tape. Although "duct tape" or "gray tape" is never listed as such, each CM and LM launched with quantity 1 of part # SEB12100050, which is variously described as TAPE,UTILITY, TAPE,ROLL, or just TAPE. I ...


63

While cosmic radiation is a problem, it's the same as with radiation on Earth: the risk is cumulative. The levels were low enough that missions of 1-2 weeks at this level did not pose a big health risk, so no shielding was necessary. The big remaining problem was radiation from solar flares and CMEs. These produce so much radiation it wasn't possible to ...


60

Like everything else, the ascent and descent stages were built to be as light as possible. But because they knew they would operate only in a vacuum, many things really didn't need to be sturdy, nor did the shape of it matter. It would never have to deal with aerodynamic drag. In fact, the descent stage was designed to buckle in the right places upon landing,...


60

A big difference is that you wouldn't need to leave someone in lunar orbit. We now have experience and confidence in the remote operation of an uncrewed vehicle. So you could have a crew of two instead of three. Or perhaps a crew of three to the surface with a larger LM. Overall, there would be much more automation, especially for the landing process, ...


59

The photo is of the launch of Gemini 11 on September 12, 1966. The Saturn V in the background is SA-500F, a "Facilities Integration Vehicle". This was a nearly complete Saturn V that was used to test integration with the launch facilities at Kennedy Space Center: Tests included the mating of the Saturn's stages in the Vehicle Assembly Building (...


58

It's hard to prove a negative, but the answer seems to be NO. It's not in D-7434 Stowage and the Support Team Concept, which has tables by location of the typical inventory stowed in the cabin. It's not in D-6737 Crew Provisions and Equipment Susbsystem, which describes in detail each of the items in the cabin. It's not listed in the actual stowage ...


55

The Apollo lunar module was battery powered, so could only maintain a livable environment for a few days (this was a major concern for Apollo 13, since the crew was reliant on the LM after the accident which disabled the service module). Once out of power, it would be unable to circulate air or to maintain a comfortable temperature inside. Committing ...


55

It takes surprisingly little delta-v to reach Venus for a flyby -- about 3850 m/s from LEO instead of the 3200 m/s or so required to get to the moon -- so while the payload would have to be reduced from the normal Apollo mission, it wouldn't have been impossible. For Apollo 17, if we consider the payload to be the CSM, LM, and LM adapter, the total is 48.6 ...


55

From a pre-launch press release for Apollo 11: Among the many missions conceived at that time was a manned journey to the Moon and back. Dr. Silverstein himself named it "Apollo" after one of the most versatile of the Greek gods. Dr. Silverstein recalls he chose the name after perusing a book of mythology at home one evening, early in 1960. He ...


54

Two main reasons really: The dust on the Moon, while it would be extremely fine-grain, is also highly charged due to Sun's radiation and solar winds, so it would stick quite good to the surface, grain to grain, but also cling to astronauts' space suits, something that was made quite apparent when they had fairly big problems getting it off and somewhat ...


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