I'll ignore the thermal, radiation, and other considerations, and consider only the general performance characteristics of the LM.
The nominal "fully automatic" descent profile for the Apollo LM required about 2080 m/s of delta-V, with a small amount of additional propellant budgeted for a manual approach and other contingencies. This is the ...
Partial answer to LOR
July 11 - NASA announced that the lunar rendezvous mode would be used for the moon mission.
This new plan called for development of a two-man
lunar module to be used to reach the surface of the
moon and return the astronauts to the lunar
orbiting command module. NASA administrator
James Webb said this method was the most ...
This was already certain in the mid-to-late 1940s, if not sooner. There's no practical way to reach the moon on chemical propellants without a multistage rocket; the only alternative in that era would have been a Project Orion-style nuclear detonation rocket, which wasn't ever considered for Apollo.
CM pulling the LM out of the rocket ...
The authoritative source of dates is The Apollo Spacecraft: A Chronology. Volume I (of the 4 volumes) ends at the spacecraft mode decision, which is what you are asking about. Volumes II and III are smaller design decisions. Volume IV starts with the Apollo 1 fire, and ends at the end of the program.
Looking at the key events page:
1957 October 4: ...
The LM had a landing stage and an ascending stage. Fuel of the ascending stage could not be used for landing, the ascending stage had no legs. But all resources (oxygen, water and batteries) for a stay on the Moon were located in the descending stage. The ascending stage had only very small storage of
oxygen, water and electricity.
If landing was aborted, ...