120

I believe it was John Young, during an Apollo 16 EVA fell to the lunar surface. Though awkward, he got up unassisted by attempting a series of what looks like push-ups until he was able to get himself to his knees. Then he had little difficulty standing up from resting on his knees. This YouTube clip shows how he did it. Apollo 16 astronaut falls and ...


74

Objects in orbit are attracted to each other, it's just their mass is small enough that the force of gravity between them is infinitesimal. Gravitational acceleration is dependent on mass and distance. In a scenario where a 150 kg astronaut is 10 m from a 80,000 kg Space Shuttle, the astronaut would be pulled toward the Shuttle at 5.336e-8 m/second squared. ...


74

From the Apollo Program Summary Report: All missions used skin cream to treat irritation caused by the biosensors. Apollo 7: All three crew members developed colds (which led to the infamous "mutiny"). All three were treated with aspirin and Actifed, and did not wear helmets during re-entry. Apollo 8: After the Commander's symptoms of motion sickness ...


53

As always, the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal is a treasure trove of annotated examples. During the later (J) missions in particular, Ed Fendell, remotely operating the rover's TV camera, managed to capture a few for posterity. Falling forward (straight or a bit to one side) happened to several moon walkers, and getting up was not that difficult. Only Charlie ...


50

Correlation is not causation. The time dilation effects are indeed present, but they account for making the astronauts "younger" by a couple milliseconds over their lifetime. Not something detectable in the grand scheme of things. But astronauts aren't just Joe Averages taken off the street. They are chosen from, amongst other features, the healthiest, ...


48

EVA suits are very difficult for a single person to put on by themselves, so another person was required to help the other astronaut put on their EVA suit. At the very least, it is much easier to do it with help. A single person would have a very difficult time doing this. On the ground a team of people is usually employed to have this happen. Note there are ...


46

Seeing as the answer is "no" (As per @DarkDust), I thought I'd add a situation that's similar. There was a short period aboard Mir after the collision with progress where all astronauts were without power, life support, lights and communication. The cosmonauts were interviewed about it and said something along the lines of "after being in here for so long ...


43

The Mars Society has a good indication of what the most serious medical issues have been in space flight. These include: A number of cases where the gloves leaked in an EVA. (STS-37, Mir Space Station) The STS-37 was possibly the most serious, only the fact that the astronaut was also bleeding kept this from a much more serious issue, similar to how Mark ...


42

Yes, a simple Google query returns a few astronauts who were or are vegetarians: Kalpana Chawla was a strict vegetarian and spent a total of 31 days in space. TJ Creamer - 163 days Dr Janice Voss - 49 days. From the answer to my previous question that you linked: In the shuttle and post-shuttle era, with actual toilets available, astronauts have more ...


40

If you watch these videos: ATV boost Zvezda boost ...you can see that the acceleration is quite gentle, but definite. The astronauts do need to hang on to something if they don't want to drift to the back of whatever room they're in. The first video was a reboost performed with the ATV service ship, as described in this article. Depending on what ...


39

Straight from the NASA website, there are actually just a few requirements you need to meet to become an astronaut: A Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. Three years of related work experience Ability to pass a NASA space physical, which includes: having vision 20/200 (6/60) uncorrected or better, ...


36

This description of the Apollo 7 mission from NASA contains a more detailed description: Mucus accumulates, fills the nasal passages and does not drain from the head. The only relief is to blow hard, which is painful to the ear drums. So the crew of Apollo 7 whirled through space suffering from stopped-up ears and noses. They took aspirin and decongestant ...


35

Even before Kennedy's "we choose to go to the Moon" speech, NASA was working on concepts for Moon missions. Dr. Robert Gilruth, Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center: "Even before the President's decision to land on the moon, we had been working on designs and guidelines for a manned circumlunar mission. This was done in a series of bull sessions on ...


34

There aren't very many places a mutineer could go... First off, for a combination of practical and logistical reasons, the ISS has never held its original planned crew of 7, and instead has been crewed by 3 people for virtually all of its service life, the exceptions being Shuttle and Soyuz visits, either for crew changes or to install or maintain parts of ...


33

No, but it is being considered, in particular for long duration deep space missions like going to the Moon. ISS astronauts could return to Earth in a short enough period of time that they could receive the medical care required if needed. Also being considered is removing one's gall bladder prior to this long duration mission.


32

If Wikipedia page you link to can be trusted with dates, then she gave birth to her and Andriyan Nikolayev's daughter on 8 June 1964. Vostok 6 launched on 19 June 1963, and was in orbit a bit under 3 days. So unless she was pregnant for a bit under a year (352 days) which is impossible even for prodigious pregnancy considering early-term exposure of the ...


31

No, there have not. So far all astronauts have made it back to earth, though not all of them alive. The only casualties in space (above the Kármán line) are the crew of Soyuz 11 who were still in orbit when they died but about to reenter the atmosphere. All other casualties like Komarov in Soyuz 1 or the Columbia Space Shuttle disaster were during reentry ...


30

The first manned Soviet flight was Vostok 1 in 1961, and the first Soviet flight with a multiperson crew was Voskhod 1 in 1964. The Wikipedia article that you linked intends to say that Soyuz 1 was the first Soyuz mission with a crew. The anecdote about the wolves and bears comes from Voskhod 2 on March 19, 1965: For the Soviet crew of Voshod 2 [sic], ...


30

Despite Charlie Duke's concern about it, given that the PLSS is massive, and would shift an astronaut's center of gravity far back from their natural distribution, it would be surprising if the designers hadn't anticipated the possibility of a fall. This view of the PLSS shows that the back side of the backpack is almost a single unbroken shell: ...


30

Twelve Apollo astronauts landed on and walked on the Moon Twelve more Apollo astronauts orbited the Moon without landing So that's twenty-four individuals that count towards "(except for the moon of course in the '60s/'70s)" Incidentally, as @ takintoolong just pointed out, the answer to Which astronaut travelled farthest from Earth? is the Apollo 13 crew. ...


30

There are at least two papers by Jack Stuster on an ISS crew conditions study: Behavioral Issues Associated with Isolation and Confinement: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals. They anonymize and collect/collate excerpts from crew journals (which I believe the project also pushed astronauts to use...it's been a while since I've read these papers in ...


29

The answer to the question, "Do the astronauts feel the station moving?" is yes, definitely, but sometimes in an "indirect" fashion. During Space Shuttle mission STS-109, when floating in my sleeping bag and waiting for slumber to come, I would notice that occasionally my body would softly brush up against one side or the other of said sleeping bag. A ...


28

Although not the incident you are referring to, an incident outside the ISS in 2013 during EVA 23 is a good reference point for your question -- where Italian astronaut Luca Parmitano had water leaking into his helmet. My answer is based primarily on information in the official NASA report regarding the incident. There is also a good summary on this site. ...


27

Fundamentally, water is water. In its purest form, it is the same anywhere, except perhaps for the isotopes. However, one of the wonderful things about water is the fact that it's a good solvent, and in fact has many things in it that aren't water. For instance, one could not survive off of ocean water: we humans require fresh water. The one potential ...


27

The only casualties in space (above the Kármán line) are the crew of Soyuz 11 who were still in orbit when they died but about to reenter the atmosphere. All other casualties like Komarov in Soyuz 1 or the Columbia Space Shuttle disaster were during reentry well below the Kármán line. The Soyuz 11 was about to land so you may count that as "during return ...


25

If you listen to live (or recorded) ISS to ground conversations you will find that the astronauts are human, and have perfectly normal conversations when not specifically running through mission checklists etc. These conversations include banter, birthday wishes, conversations about the weather (yep - seriously) and any manner of normal topics. I couldn't ...


24

From the NASA Astronaut Candidate Program brochure: Applicants should be aware that selection as an Graduation from the Astronaut Candidate Program will require successful completion of the following: International Space Station systems training, Extravehicular Activity skills training, Robotics skills training, Russian language training , and aircraft ...


24

So the article mentioned by OP did refer to time dilation. An astronaut in orbit does indeed experience time slowing down compared to humans on the surface on earth. However, this difference is incredible tiny for current astronauts. Quoting the Wikipedia article: [A]fter 6 months on the International Space Station (ISS) (which orbits Earth at a speed of ...


24

John Glenn takes the oldest astronaut record by a fair margin; he flew on STS-95 at the age of 77 -- officially as a "payload specialist", but in practice as a passenger. A number of other astronauts have been to space in their late 50s and early 60s. Of these, Story Musgrave, the second-oldest, has flown over 1200 hours in space on 6 different shuttle ...


23

For NASA, candidates must be able to pass the long-duration space flight physical. Height, blood pressure, and vision are three of the physical requirements included in this test. From their website: Astronaut Requirements Pilots Distant visual acuity: 20/100 or better uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 each eye. Blood pressure: 140/90 measured in a ...


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