165

(A) who (if anyone) was the first human to actually be asleep (that is to say, presumably inside the lander) - not just a scheduled sleep time - on the Moon? It depends on your definition of sleep. Maybe Buzz Aldrin, curled on the floor of the LM cabin: The best Aldrin managed was a “couple hours of mentally fitful drowsing.” Armstrong simply stayed ...


63

Background I believe the astronomy.com article is essentially accurate. The story of the Skylab 4 "mutiny" or "strike" has been greatly exaggerated. The crew took a scheduled rest day instead of working through it as they'd done with previous scheduled rest days (and in fact they actually continued to work, albeit at a relaxed pace). This isn't a new ...


59

Jack Swigert realized that he forgot to pay his taxes around the first hour of the second day. Here's the dialogue from the Apollo 13 transcript: Note, Jack Swigert is the CMP (Command Module Pilot), Jim Lovell is the CDR (Commander), and Joseph Peter Kerwin is the CC (CAPCOM, crew members just call him Joe). So I guess the answer to your question: He ...


56

They use three high-tech procedures: They schedule and ration their fluid and food intake. They go to the bathroom before the trip. They wear diapers, sorry, I meant Maximum Absorbency Garment. In other words: they do exactly what you do before a trip. Minus the diaper, probably. So, the answer to your question is the third point: they just pee in their ...


53

There are at least two papers by Jack Stuster on an ISS crew conditions study: Behavioral Issues Associated with Isolation and Confinement: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals. They anonymize and collect/collate excerpts from crew journals (which I believe the project also pushed astronauts to use...it's been a while since I've read these papers in ...


42

There were no nominal activities for the middeck crew related to flying the vehicle. There were no switches or controls on the middeck accessible to seated crewmembers in the ascent/entry seats. The rectangular objects in the photo are middeck lockers which are located external to the avionics bays. Mission Specialist 3 (MS-3) did have responsibility over ...


30

One of the main traditions and rituals of Soviet cosmonautics- all crew must urinate on the right rear wheel of their bus: https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20140610-the-strange-rituals-of-cosmonauts With a cleansing enema launch day begins. To help ease our difficulty, we are offered a pre-launch enema. Administered by our flight surgeons, this allows us ...


23

Let's look at Newton's first law: Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. In modern mathematical speech, this can be stated more precise. In an inertial frame of reference, an object either remains at rest or continues to ...


22

If you want an example manifest for one logistics flight, that's available. Search terms...suggest "ISS Cargo Manifest" From SpaceX 2 Cargo Manifest (see link for details) 81 kg of crew supplies (food, clothes, paperwork) 25 kg of international partner experiments 323 kg of NASA experiments 3 kg of EVA tools 135 kg of ISS hardware 8 kg of PC parts ...


21

An astronaut practicing an EVA in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (a large swimming-pool like facility) is still affected by gravity. They are pulled down relative to the suit - which is buoyed up by its internal air volume and attached flotation devices. If they are upside down, the blood would tend to accumulate in their head. Buoyant forces do not ...


20

A freediver could not be in perfect neutral buoyancy. The air in his lungs causes his chest to be more buoyant than his legs. So he would be turned chest up, legs down. Been there, done that. If you let air out until you sink, the mean density of your chest is still lower than the density of your legs. When you exhale completely some air remains in your ...


20

24 people have gone around the Moon on nine Apollo missions (8, 10-17). 3 of those 24 were repeat visitors. I'm not sure if Apollo 13 saw the sight you describe, but all of the others surely did. Apollo 13 only had one chance, and they probably had other things on their minds at that time. Although according to the official transcript, someone said "...


20

According to an authoritative-sounding post on collectspace here, it's statute (which matches my recollection). Edit: OP @costrom found an FAA document Fact Sheet – Commercial Space Transportation Activities which confirms it.


17

Nice observation, he is just doing it to show off! Check these out: https://twitter.com/cmdr_hadfield/status/326727757109268481?lang=en


16

The viscosity of the surrounding medium has a lot of impact concerning your ability to move. If, for some reason, your body starts rotating, you'll come to a rest quickly in water, but it'll take a very long time on the ISS (unless you can get a hold of a wall) and you'll rotate forever in free space. In water, you can move around easily by swimming; ...


16

Are these statute miles (1609.344 m, 5280 ft) or nautical miles (1852 m, 6076-ish ft)? TL;DR Neither. Or rather, it is 50 statute miles, but a statute mile is not 1609.344 meters. That is the length of an international mile, and U.S. statutes have intentionally not made the conversion from survey miles to international miles. A statute mile is a synonym for ...


15

On the Apollo 7 and Apollo 8 flights the crew slept in rotation, such that there was always at least one waking crew member. There were much complaints about the difficulty of sleeping, and the poor quality of sleep, in such a small craft with other people awake and being generally distracting. I am not sure on which mission the sleep schedule was changed, ...


14

I concentrate on Earthrises documented by Hasselblad images. The Apollo 8 earthrise image is part of the question. An Apollo 10 CM photo AS10-27-3888 called Earthrise from lunar orbit. Earthrise as seen from the Apollo 11 CM AS11-44-6547: Another Apollo 11 image AS11-37-5441 taken from the LM: So we got earthrise images from both the Apollo 11 LM and CM. ...


12

While unmarried at the time, Mattingly married shortly afterward in June, 1970, only two months after Apollo 13. Swigert never married, with his NYT obituary describing him as a lifelong bachelor (the term is decidedly not, in this case, a euphemism for homosexuality). It therefore seems likely that Mattingly was not dating as widely as Swigert was in early ...


12

Things started badly, the astronauts tried to hide Astronaut Pogue’s vomiting. NASA had to figure it out on their own. If there is anything that smacks of mutiny, it’s this because it violates mission rules. NASA never used the word mutiny, but ‘reprimand’ was tossed around. Story from back then: https://www.nytimes.com/1973/11/18/archives/skylab-...


11

Other answers have covered specific sleep issues pretty well, but I'd like to point out that space missions aren't quite as strictly scheduled as you might think, not after Skylab 4. During Skylab 4, the workload was so severe, and time so strictly scheduled, that the crew essentially went on strike. They got fed up with being overworked and took a day off,...


11

Russell's answer hits the essentials, and I've given it the checkmark. However, I will add some more details. Ken Matingly was engrossed in his work and had a steady girlfriend. As a New York Times article about him described: Many say that Commander Mattingly remained a bachelor for so long to study night and day to win an assignment on the Apollo 13 ...


11

"Have a good flight" works. "Godspeed" is traditional in the US space program, not necessarily as a religious reference, but because Scott Carpenter said it to John Glenn. Here's a sign from the training team at the STS-135 crew sendoff at Ellington Field. (July 4, 2011) (personal photo)


11

I suspect, though I cannot prove, that the photographer was using a fairly common trick for getting high-spirited groups to pose for serious photos. Promise them that you'll take a silly one as well as a serious one. If you do that, they won't play tricks like stealthy rude gestures, shifting each other's chairs, and so on when you're taking the serious ...


10

Based on @Martin Schroeder comment. I found out a cargo with water supply: https://spaceflight101.com/progress-ms-03/cargo-manifest/ 420kg of water out of a 2405kg payload. Presumably, There are lighter and heavier shipments.


9

Yes, according to Mike Collins (but from lunar orbit, not on the surface). The earth as seen from this distance - nearly a quarter of a million miles - is an unforgettable sight. To begin with, it looks tiny, the size of your thumbnail held at arm's length. It is mostly ocean and clouds, the blue and white dominating the brownish-green of ...


8

There are two things about such an action that must be considered: what happens on the station itself so that the crew can protect themselves, and what happens once the crew returns. To the first part, NASA does have a policy in place to handle an out of control astronaut. This article references but does not provide a link to the protocol. However, it's ...


8

This is a frame from a video I shot in the Shuttle Mission Simulator back in the 90s. I was sitting in the commander's seat. The shoebox with the red stripes is supposed to be the launch tower, you can see the ground at the bottom. The simulator window field of view was supposed to be accurate. But although I didn't have a helmet on, I would say yes.


7

It's important to note that Al-Saud (the way his name was listed in his NASA bio, now gone down the memory hole like most of jsc.nasa.gov) paid for his ticket. Back in those days of flying commercial payloads on the Shuttle, it was possible to pay for a payload specialist seat as part of "Standard Launch Services". (emphasis mine, scanned from STS ...


7

To be precise, the astronaut is posing for a "tourist picture", rather than examining Surveyor. This is photo AS12-48-7136 (very similar to -7135, but distinguishable by the position of the Réseau marks), with some contrast changes. According to the Apollo 12 image library, there was some back and forth of cameras and magazines because of a mechanical ...


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