Podcast #128: We chat with Kent C Dodds about why he loves React and discuss what life was like in the dark days before Git. Listen now.
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(A) who (if anyone) was the first human to actually be asleep (that is to say, presumably inside the lander) - not just a scheduled sleep time - on the Moon? It depends on your definition of sleep. Maybe Buzz Aldrin, curled on the floor of the LM cabin: The best Aldrin managed was a “couple hours of mentally fitful drowsing.” Armstrong simply stayed ...


52

There are at least two papers by Jack Stuster on an ISS crew conditions study: Behavioral Issues Associated with Isolation and Confinement: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals. They anonymize and collect/collate excerpts from crew journals (which I believe the project also pushed astronauts to use...it's been a while since I've read these papers in ...


46

Seeing as the answer is "no" (As per @DarkDust), I thought I'd add a situation that's similar. There was a short period aboard Mir after the collision with progress where all astronauts were without power, life support, lights and communication. The cosmonauts were interviewed about it and said something along the lines of "after being in here for so long ...


31

No, there have not. So far all astronauts have made it back to earth, though not all of them alive. The only casualties in space (above the Kármán line) are the crew of Soyuz 11 who were still in orbit when they died but about to reenter the atmosphere. All other casualties like Komarov in Soyuz 1 or the Columbia Space Shuttle disaster were during reentry ...


30

Twelve Apollo astronauts landed on and walked on the Moon Twelve more Apollo astronauts orbited the Moon without landing So that's twenty-four individuals that count towards "(except for the moon of course in the '60s/'70s)" Incidentally, as @ takintoolong just pointed out, the answer to Which astronaut travelled farthest from Earth? is the Apollo 13 crew. ...


27

The only casualties in space (above the Kármán line) are the crew of Soyuz 11 who were still in orbit when they died but about to reenter the atmosphere. All other casualties like Komarov in Soyuz 1 or the Columbia Space Shuttle disaster were during reentry well below the Kármán line. The Soyuz 11 was about to land so you may count that as "during return ...


24

John Glenn takes the oldest astronaut record by a fair margin; he flew on STS-95 at the age of 77 -- officially as a "payload specialist", but in practice as a passenger. A number of other astronauts have been to space in their late 50s and early 60s. Of these, Story Musgrave, the second-oldest, has flown over 1200 hours in space on 6 different shuttle ...


23

The best sources for this kind of thing might be the technical crew debriefings done within days of each flight. I've looked at a few of them and they don't describe any shaking; they frequently comment on the smoothness of reentry, in fact. They do discuss (low-frequency) oscillations in a few cases, i.e. the capsule rocking back and forth due to ...


23

The obvious natural limit on amount of trash comes from the law of preservation of mass: they can't make more trash than the amount of material that was delivered by a delivery spacecraft with a resupply mission. They pack all the trash into bags kept for that specific purpose, and when a cargo spacecraft is to undock to be deorbited and burn up in the ...


22

Not humans, but Laika died due to malfunctioning enviromental control, and a retrorocket failure on Biosatellite 1 left its passengers (plants, bugs, and frog eggs) drifting in a slowly decaying orbit until burning up on re-entry.


21

To my knowledge, only two of the candidates that failed the tests did later become astronauts and flew on missions for NASA: Jim Lovell According to the Wikipedia article on Project Mercury: Navy Lt (later Capt) Jim Lovell, who was later an astronaut in the Gemini and Apollo programs, did not pass the physical tests. Lovell flew on 4 different ...


21

Okay, this is misleading. They received beyond their normal salary the government Per Diem, which amounts to $8/ day. Also, this was reduced somewhat because they didn't need to pay for their sleeping locations. This is the same as any government travel, if they were traveling in a location where they didn't need to pay for their housing, they didn't receive ...


21

An astronaut practicing an EVA in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (a large swimming-pool like facility) is still affected by gravity. They are pulled down relative to the suit - which is buoyed up by its internal air volume and attached flotation devices. If they are upside down, the blood would tend to accumulate in their head. Buoyant forces do not ...


20

Several space selfies were made and chances are you already know the very first one Buzz Aldrin took of himself during Gemini 12. The cameras used are large-ish but imagine even holding a shoe box in front of you with thick gloves on: you're still able to point it at yourself in a distance suitable to make a photograph of yourself, provided the lens' focal ...


20

A freediver could not be in perfect neutral buoyancy. The air in his lungs causes his chest to be more buoyant than his legs. So he would be turned chest up, legs down. Been there, done that. If you let air out until you sink, the mean density of your chest is still lower than the density of your legs. When you exhale completely some air remains in your ...


17

Another similar incident was the Soyuz 23, where the capsule landed on a partially frozen lake in the middle of a blizzard, which it broke through, and ended up partially submerged, specifically the hatch. It took quite some time to rescue the astronauts, and in fact they were presumed dead when the capsule was recovered. An hour or two after the capsule ...


16

The viscosity of the surrounding medium has a lot of impact concerning your ability to move. If, for some reason, your body starts rotating, you'll come to a rest quickly in water, but it'll take a very long time on the ISS (unless you can get a hold of a wall) and you'll rotate forever in free space. In water, you can move around easily by swimming; ...


15

Have they not visited geostationary orbit at 22-23k miles to maintain or deploy satellites? No. It takes a fair amount of energy to get from LEO to GEO. The only spacecraft capable of bringing astronauts plus a satellite to space was the Space Shuttle, and it didn't have enough delta-V to get to GEO. It would deploy its satellite in LEO along with a kick ...


15

If you count nonhuman astronauts, then yes, many animals have died in space.Laika was not the first, but was probably the most famous.


14

The shoes of the A7L suit were white with partly-blue "lunar boots" worn over them, but soon were covered in grey-ish dust once on the moon. Have a look at this image on Wikipedia:


14

In addition to the vegetarian and even vegan astronauts mentioned elsewhere, there soon may be more. In at least one of many possible scenarios for food on long flights, NASA astronauts on the proposed Mars mission for 2030 will be on vegan diets. The need for sustainable food options and preservability of the food is driving this choice.


14

On the Apollo 7 and Apollo 8 flights the crew slept in rotation, such that there was always at least one waking crew member. There were much complaints about the difficulty of sleeping, and the poor quality of sleep, in such a small craft with other people awake and being generally distracting. I am not sure on which mission the sleep schedule was changed, ...


13

Highest altitude of all manned missions excluding Apollo: Gemini 11, 1372 km (leaving this here for reference: ) Highest altitude dated after Apollo: Space Shuttle STS-31R (the Hubble launch), 620 km.


11

Other answers have covered specific sleep issues pretty well, but I'd like to point out that space missions aren't quite as strictly scheduled as you might think, not after Skylab 4. During Skylab 4, the workload was so severe, and time so strictly scheduled, that the crew essentially went on strike. They got fed up with being overworked and took a day off,...


10

Check this answer on Quora: Figures quoted by the BBC yesterday, as they showed UK astronaut Tim Peake reaching the International Space Station, suggested £16M and 6 years of training. There may be an improvement in the economics if a nation sponsors multiple astronauts. I think for Alex Gerst it would be a similar quote, but remember that Mathias ...


9

Some Shuttle/ISS examples of crewmembers who completed training, were assigned to a flight, but declined/left/had issues/got reassigned: Joan Higginbotham. Left NASA after being assigned to her 2nd flight, STS-126. Jeff Ashby. Was assigned to his first flight as pilot of STS-87 but stepped down due to family issues. Went on to fly two flights as pilot and ...


9

Are there any atheist or agnostic American astronauts, past or present? With the hundreds of astronauts who have been through the American space program, I am sure there are more than a few atheists and agnostics, but they're likely quiet about it. The only publicly self-identified atheist astronaut I know of is not American, ESA's Christer Fuglesang. ...


9

There are two different effects of oxygen toxicity, the Lorrain-Smith-effect and the Paul-Bert-effect. See Wikipedia. The Lorrain-Smith-effect may occur at a partial oxygen pressure above 0.5 bar for more than about 24 hours. It is a lung toxicity. The Paul-Bert-effect may occur at a partial pressure above 1.6 bar for minutes to a few hours. It is a ...


8

The traditional astronaut pre-flight breakfast is steak and eggs, with juice, coffee, and/or tea, and possibly toast. This is what Alan Shepard ate (bacon-wrapped filet mignon, allegedly, and scrambled eggs) before his first Mercury sub-orbital flight, and the tradition has continued since. Steak and eggs are high in protein, low in carbs and fiber, which ...


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