Following suggestions in the comments, below is an attempt of the answer, although it is based rather on a common sense / engineering guesswork.
There was an incident during Apollo 12 splashdown, but with a hard item:
During splashdown, a 16 mm filmcamera dislodged from storage and struck Bean in the forehead, rendering him briefly unconscious. He ...
Astronauts are in orbit around the Earth, traveling at the same speed as their space ships.
This is true whether they are inside or outside of the space ship.
So if they go outside, they travel along side it without any need to slow down. Of course since they are in circular orbits around the center of the Earth, if they wait 20 minutes ...
Let's look at Newton's first law:
Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed.
In modern mathematical speech, this can be stated more precise.
In an inertial frame of reference, an object either remains at rest or continues to ...
As a scuba diver I know when to do a Valsalva maneuver to equalize pressure on my ears: only when descending from surface during a fast pressure increase. While ascending from the deepth my ears never needed help in equalizing pressure. For the anatomy of the ears see Wikipedia.
The astronauts experienced a fast pressure increase only during the very last ...
One can "start" or "execute" the "burn" or the "maneuver".
Examples are found in the Shuttle Crew Operations Manual
on page 7.2-3
To perform an automatic maneuver, the crew first enters the required
data on the UNIV PTG display for the desired maneuver. To start the
maneuver at a set time, that time is also entered on the UNIV PTG
display. After ...
Does the change in gravity result in time dilation in this case?
It sure does!
The change in speed is still not even close to the speed of light - and so I don't imagine it has much of an effect.
It turns out that both relativistic effects have similar magnitudes; in the first equation below both terms have a $1/c^2$.
In order to stay in space for long ...
According to Sunita Williams, Robert Frost, Chris Hadfield, and backed up by NASA's website, besides it being fluffy & gross, it would make you burp, which is "kind of like acid reflux". I conclude this would be unpleasant.
After spending several evenings and going through many dozens of web pages whilst searching for the answer to this question, I couldn't find any definitive claims or quotes that would suggest that such an ability (to regularly place objects at rest on ISS) is common.
In this regard, I believe that it would be very hard to obtain a definitive answer in any ...