The presentation contains a historical background of previous experiments.
О модернизации наземных средств и бортового оборудования, используемых в радиофизических экспериментах перспективных космических проектов. (ФИРЭ им. В.А. Котельникова РАН)
On the modernization of ground-based ...
With terraforming the planets Mars is ... impossible, the gravity of Mars isn’t strong enough to keep enough air and water in it from solar winds and currently there is no way to prevent that decay, so a permanent self sufficient terraformed Mars colony is impossible.
Venus however has the atmosphere can can support the changes for the end of time, however ...
Reentry vehicles have a turbulent wake, and a transition region exists at some point along the body.
The paper Laminar-Turbulent Transition on Reentry
Capsules and Planetary Probes has a good overview.
Shuttle images from The HYTHIRM Project: Flight Thermography of the Space
Shuttle During Hypersonic Re-entry
What local pressure changes would a starship launch on Mars cause?
Here's my non-expert on this.
A local pressure disturbance in an atmosphere will move or relax at pretty much the speed of sound. It's coming out of the rocket at 3000 m/s from say a 10 m cluster of engines but will quickly randomize and expand at 300 m/s, which means at a distance of 20 or ...
A short answer is temperature profile of atmosphere and change in its chemical composition; both primarily driven by sunlight. You should look at the middle graph below; note that scale is exponential
Sun light includes some amount of highly energetic photons (UV and X-ray) that are easily absorbed by atmospheric gases. This process is limited to upper ...
There are a lot of phenomena at play here.
First of all, you already mentioned there's a factor of changing atmospheric composition. This one is easiest to understand. Consider a very simplistic model where your atmosphere have no turbulent mixing, there are just 2 type of gases and temperature of that gas is constant everywhere. Then you can model each gas ...