Keeping a burnt-out stage attached doesn't hurt until it's time to start the next stage. In fact, keeping it attached until shortly before it's time to ignite the next stage can improve the total launch delta V.
Stage three separation occurred at an altitude of 184 km. There's still air up there. It's not very dense air, but for a vehicle going at close to ...
Why would these be used instead of just using a larger first stage?
Strapping on differently-sized boosters allows variance in payload mass without redesign of the first stage. The PSLV has flown with no (PSLV-CA), small as shown (PSLV-G), or big (PSLV-XL) solid boosters.
PSLV-CA (no boosters) - can deliver 1100 kg to 622 km sun-synchronous orbit
It’s a sense of scale issue. As much as the struts might look like flimsy bits of drainpipe, those rockets are around 15 meters wide, and the struts are more like the heavy steel beams used to hold up entire buildings.
So yes, they’re just really strong.
Some configurations of the Delta II used nine solid boosters.
In launches from both the ER and WR, the first-stage RS-27A main
engine and six of the nine strap-on solid-rocket motors are
ignited on the ground at liftoff. Following burnout of these six SRMs,
the remaining three are ignited.
Delta II ...
There are a few reasons:
The most obvious but easier to overcome is that the Starship is new. They haven't had the time to perfect everything. For example, the Raptor engines use two separate turbopumps, one for liquid oxygen and one for methane. This improves efficiency but it makes the engines far more complex. The Raptor is the first engine of its kind to ...
The starboard booster was ignited two seconds earlier as an attempt to diminish the fireball effect noticed in earlier launches.
William Graham of NASASpaceflight.com says:
The effect – caused by the rocket’s exhaust igniting hydrogen vented near the rocket – has scorched or even set fire to the first stage insulation on previous flights. While it has ...
The Soyuz line all the way back to the R-7 has straps or cables connecting the boosters to the core. The straps, plus a "socket" on the core catching the front tip of the booster, are apparently how they're held on. One of the straps, near the base of the booster, is shown highlighted in blue here:
This RussianSpaceWeb page has a rendering of the boosters ...
These boosters are called “strap-on” because there is little structure besides the separation mechanism holding them on, and the rocket is still a viable launch vehicle without them. In a few designs, like the Atlas V, the number of boosters can be customized per-mission. Also, in some cases the booster design is shared between launchers like the Shuttle and ...
For Delta IV Heavy, according to Spaceflight101:
The CBCs functioning as boosters are attached to the central core using thrust struts that interface with the interstage section of the launcher to transfer loads from the boosters to the rest of the vehicle. Additional attachment points reside in the base of the vehicle right above the engine heat shields.
The claim may be based on a misunderstanding. The solid rocket boosters were made in Utah and transported to the launch site in 4 segments by rail, which did limit their size.
But it was not the track gauge that influenced this limit, but the loading gauge, which is only very indirectly related to the track gauge.
However, the diameter of the shuttle ...
The SRBs are pretty close to burnout when they separate:
SRB separation is initiated when the three solid rocket motor chamber pressure transducers are processed in the redundancy management middle value select and the head- end chamber pressure of both SRBs is less than or equal to 50 psi. A backup cue is the time elapsed from booster ignition.
The Soyuz uses conical boosters because there's an aerodynamic advantage.
According to The Red Rockets' Glare:
Engineers gravitated to a conical shape primarily because of the
aerodynamic advantages ...but also for 3 other reasons: the large size
of the engines at the tail end, the possibility of imparting
additional thrust to the central sustainer ...
Offered as a supplement to the other answers, here are some data about SRBs thrust profiles and operation.
Thrust of a SRB is function of the area of the solid fuel burning, as shown below:
You can find here how the space shuttle SRBs are filled:
The propellant had an 11-point star-shaped perforation in the forward motor segment and a double-truncated-cone ...
The coasting period is certainly to perform a Gravity Turn.
It is a trajectory optimization that uses gravity to steer the vehicle
onto its desired trajectory. ... the thrust is not used to change the
ship's direction, so more of it is used to accelerate the vehicle into
Once the vehicle has coasted into the right angle, P4 ignition takes ...
Your assumption that rotating the rocket removes asymmetry is incorrect.
The total thrust of the rocket can be visualized as a vector. This vector should point at the center of gravity of the rocket. If it doesn't, the thrust will change the direction of the rocket. It's easy to see that a rocket with 1 booster will not have its thrust vector pointing at its ...
The booster has two kinds of joints between its segments, field joints and factory joints. The booster parts shipped to KSC were made up of two segments joined by factory joints. At KSC, these parts were put together using the field joints. There are three field joints and seven factory joints in a Shuttle SRB.
Both kinds of ...
The jettison of spent boosters depends on a number of factors like the design, safety etc.
The Japanese H-IIA has a rather unique design, where the thrust developed by the solid fuel rocket motor (SRB-A) passes through the thrust struts and is
received by the lug which forms an integral part of the cross beam fixed on the LE-7A engine.
Image from ...
Partial answer: the ammonium perchlorate is manufactured in the western United States.
The two perchlorate manufacturing facilities located in Henderson, the
Kerr-McGee and the PEPCON plants, supplied the entire perchlorate
demand for the United States until 1988, when the PEPCON plant was
destroyed by an explosion.
(note: Henderson is in Nevada)
'Loaded' means it's loaded with propellant (as opposed to something like 'inert' or no marking at all, for casings that have not been loaded). It's used to make it easy to distinguish which casing segments have been loaded with propellant and which ones haven't. Loaded segments require different handling procedures than non-loaded segments.
In the military,...
Besides the Delta II and PSLV-G/PSLV-XL, there are a few proposed/in-development stages that would fire 7 engines at once.
Blue Origin’s New Glenn booster is designed with 7 BE-4 engines powering its first stage.
ULA has put forth a paper design for a “Delta Super Heavy”, 6 boosters surrounding the central first stage core of the Delta IV. I don’t know if ...
The experience of landing a booster for SpaceX is actually more relevant directly to the Super Heavy booster, which has yet to fly. (BN1 was built as a pathfinder, then disassembled. BN2 is under construction as of Apr 2021).
Falcon 9 lands its first stage, which is analogous to Super Heavy. However, it does not land its upper stage, which is more similar ...
Any rocket flight will involve a burn in it's final orbital position. If you want to enter a 500km orbit your engine will shut down at 500km up. The profile shows it needs nearly 19 minutes to reach altitude but the rocket burn times only add up to 15 minutes. You can't magically make it get there in 15 minutes because you don't have extra fuel. Thus the ...
The main engine on the Atlas, as with most orbital launchers, is gimballed such that it can direct thrust to offset the imbalanced thrust from the boosters (or any other disturbance). Atlas uses only as many boosters as it needs for a given payload -- from zero to 5 -- and some of those configurations are asymmetrical. It looks especially odd using only a ...
The SRBs for the Shuttle and SLS are used to get the stack moving and off the pad, so that the more efficient LOX/LH2 engines can do the hard work.
In the case of the Space Shuttle, an amazing amount of thrust is needed. I like using lbs of thrust because it is more inspiring. The SRBs produced 2.8 million lbs of thrust. That is just awe inspiring huge.
First issue is that even though Falcon Heavy is claimed to have a max payload of 50,000+ lbs to LEO, it turns out the payload adapter is much more limited, with two models, the bigger limited to 24,000 lbs range.
Second issue is that the fairing is volume limited, today, and increasing the payload would not help, since the density is usually not high ...
Titan 34D boosters had thin, strappy looking attachments (but they were probably actually struts vs. straps).
I always thought the upper attachments looked odd. They must have only been to resist lateral forces, with all the thrust force being transmitted through the aft ones.
No, they're on a separate ship (a tug boat) nearby. This tug tows the barge into position, then detaches so the barge can use its own motors for positioning and retreats to a safe distance for the landing.