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63

The Neil Armstrong's "First step on the Moon" was filmed by a camera installed on the MESA (Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly) at the side of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) descent stage that Neil Armstrong had to pull a lanyard to unlock the pallet and make it drop open. A switch inside the LM, operated by Buzz Aldrin, then activated the TV camera which ...


39

I actually worked on the team that built HDEV (came across this question while googling). TildalWave's answer is mostly correct, though we leave the cameras on during black (ISS night) to help with dead pixel analysis. The aperture and focus settings are fixed for sunlight viewing to better characterize any radiation caused issues with the sensors (the ...


39

A controller on Earth, Ed Fendell, manually operated the camera by radio control, knowing the time of liftoff and the ascent trajectory expected and referring to a time-and-angle chart without watching the video feed in real time! According to Fendell: Now, the way that worked was this. Harley Weyer, who worked for me, sat down and figured what the ...


37

From the Voyager FAQ Question: Can the Voyager imaging cameras be turned back on? Answer: It is possible for the cameras to be turned on, but it is not a priority for Voyager's Interstellar Mission. After Voyager 1 took its last image (the "Solar System Family Portrait" in 1990), the cameras were turned off to save power and memory for the ...


37

The radiation dosage for a year on the moon is between 110 mSv and 380 mSv. On Earth, that dosage is 2.4 mSv, or higher, depending on where you are exactly. Bottom line, the few days in Lunar orbit would have aged the film due to radiation between 50-150 days/ day in orbit maximum, thus it would be the equivalent of film that was aged a few years at most. ...


26

I believe they are and my network analysis tools show nearly constant transmission (data bandwidth remains the same), even when the image is all black or all gray. According to High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) Experiment quick notes on its USTREAM channel: Black Image = International Space Station (ISS) is on the night side of the Earth. Gray ...


24

Most conventional motion detectors wouldn't work well on Mars. PIR: Usually only works well with warm bodies such as humans and animals. Would probably never trigger on Mars Ultrasonic: Due to the extremely low pressure on Mars any acoustic sensing through the atmosphere would be greatly hindered. These sensors usually only pick up on very large, ...


23

Yes, this is a real Lincoln cent and it makes part of the camera calibration target for the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) instrument. A geologist tradition is to place coins (or other object of a known size) besides photographed objects to show the scale of the photograph. This seems to be a homage to this tradition. For details see: Lincoln Cent on Mars ...


23

These were the last photos Voyager 1 took, on February 14, 1990: This became known as the "Pale Blue Dot" photo. And the Solar System Family Portrait: Voyager 1 had traveled 6 billion km at that time. After these images were taken, the camera was shut down as @Pearson says. Voyager took 60 photos. This shows all of them: On some of the photos, you can ...


22

Radiation can affect film - but bear in mind the radiation around Chernobyl was, truly, extremely high. The radiation in our region of space is not as extreme. Also bear in mind that the earlier Lunar Orbiter probes used film cameras, the pictures were developed and scanned automatically (by machinery on board) and the results transmitted to Earth. The ...


20

New Horizons was designed to do a fly-by of Pluto in a relatively large distance. It was only in range of Pluto for a couple of hours. Dawn is designed to orbit Ceres at much closer range. To accomplish its mission, New Horizons had to have such a high resolution camera to get the desired results. Instruments are designed specifically for a certain mission. ...


20

The feeds were identical throughout the flight. It was definitely recorded from the same booster. At booster separation you can clearly see the shoreline. If it was the camera view from the other booster the background would be rotated by 180°, which it wasn't: Also the RCS puffs happened at the exact same time, which is highly unlikely as the boosters have ...


19

NASA studied the effects of radiation on film. Bright spots are just one of the possible results. Other effects include an increase in the amount of noise, and a decrease in contrast and color response. These effects are not easily detectable to the untrained eye and without access to the original material. In this study, NASA also experimented with ...


18

When calibrating a camera, there are typically 3 things that are used: Some sort of a color pallet A line chart of some sort to identify the fine resolution A real object, to make sure there isn't something fundamentally wrong. NASA followed this same suit, choosing the penny to be the real object, claiming that it give homage to the practice of using ...


18

It was the Moon. It was illuminated at roughly 85-86% as seen from low Earth's orbit at the time of deployment, so pretty bright, and roughly directly overhead of the Americas. Deployment camera was pointing more or less backwards with respect to upper stage's velocity vector and the upper stage was tracking roughly over the Atlantic ocean West of Europe 17 ...


18

JunoCam used different technologies than does the typical framing camera one buys at a store. A typical digital color camera uses a Bayer filter pattern, a row of alternating tiny blue and green filters, followed by a row of alternating tiny green and red filters, each filter covering a pixel, followed by a row of alternating tiny blue and green filters, and ...


16

EPIC (PDF) is a Cassegrain type reflector telescope so there's the fixed hyperbolic secondary mirror in the middle of the telescopes light path / focal plane. While that could be removed during post-processing and combining multiple exposures focusing at slightly different angles of the telescope itself (or shifting of the sensor on the focal plane, depends ...


14

DSN time is competitive, and not cheap. So, besides the costs that Tom mentioned in getting the camera there (and an appropriate relay satellite), you have to consider the costs of getting the data back to the earth. For the space station, it's only ~370km (230 miles) up ... relatively close, and they can use much smaller dishes than what's required to get ...


14

This will be somewhat different for each launch site, but at most launch facilities, among its buildings, there would also be some that resemble an astronomy observatory with a rotating dome on top (cupola).                          &...


14

"With some modifications" for space environment is a time and money-intensive activity, at least if you want it to work. You'd need some serious justification for such a camera on a mission that is already highly cost-constrained. There is always a color camera on a Mars rover anyway, usually with much more than three color filters, so its color vision is ...


11

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has a camera called HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment), launched in 2005-08-12, which is the highest resolution camera in orbit of Mars at an altitude that varies from 200 to 400 kilometers (about 125 to 250 miles) above the martian surface by Carrier rocket Atlas V-401. The High Resolution Imaging Science ...


11

Red because of the color of the planet - we need to be able to see the most red detail, as that's what most of the planet is colored. Blue-green because we don't really need to see blue and green individually. If it's not red, it's enough to know that it's blue or green. Now, the near-infrared sensor. Why? It turns out that information on mineral groups ...


11

According to this blog post, the artefact was caused by scattered light reflected off some element inside the telescope. The ghostly circular pupil image and the little dots that are moving around in the image (and that aren’t JR1) are scattered light from a nearby bright star. LORRI isn’t that big of a telescope – just a little bit smaller than an 8-inch ...


10

As of now, it does not and that's not likely to change. I asked this question of leaders of the JWST project at Goddard Space Flight Center. It isn't that it wouldn't be useful, the problem is funds and time. Considering the current cost of the project, any new addition would increase the cost and could impact the scheduled launch date of October 2018. ...


10

NASA used special, temperature-resistant, radiation-proof film for their photos. That kind of film was not readily available in the Soviet Union - "not readily available" meaning the only rolls of the film they had were ones recovered from American spy balloons. These were used to take photos of the far side of the Moon by the Luna 3 probe. A more primary ...


10

Voyager's camera used a vidicon tube, which is sort of a vacuum tube precursor to a CCD. I don't 100% understand the principle, but the basic idea is that the image is captured on a photoconductive surface, thus converting it to a pattern of electrical charge; an electron beam is raster-scanned across the photoconductor producing a varying voltage out of ...


9

Pure and simple, cost Mars Putting a webcam on or in orbit of Mars would involve sending the data back to earth, and sending data to and from Mars isn't cheap. There's only so much bandwidth, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in the ideal conditions puts out 6Mbits, and Curiosities direct to earth data rate is ~15-32kbps, or at up to 8Mbits to the orbiters ( ...


9

There seem to be 3 on-car cameras, 2 of these are very clear from the "Starman in Red Roadster" post on Elon Musk's Instagram I've tried to highlight 3 of the Cameras, two of which (Hood and side shots) are abundantly clear, and the Dash shot seems to be hidden between the seats, over Starman's shoulder. Using the trusty zoom and enhance we could get a ...


8

Confirmed. SpaceX has updated their launch video with the proper views. 24 minutes in Read the description


8

This is not a complete answer, because I haven't identified the video directly, but it has some information which I think should help someone interested in finding it. Camera I am now pretty sure (despite my original answer in the photography SE) that this is footage from one of the Apollo TV cameras. The 16mm film footage is simply higher quality than ...


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