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64

The Neil Armstrong's "First step on the Moon" was filmed by a camera installed on the MESA (Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly) at the side of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) descent stage that Neil Armstrong had to pull a lanyard to unlock the pallet and make it drop open. A switch inside the LM, operated by Buzz Aldrin, then activated the TV camera which ...


47

I actually worked on the team that built HDEV (came across this question while googling). TildalWave's answer is mostly correct, though we leave the cameras on during black (ISS night) to help with dead pixel analysis. The aperture and focus settings are fixed for sunlight viewing to better characterize any radiation caused issues with the sensors (the ...


41

A controller on Earth, Ed Fendell, manually operated the camera by radio control, knowing the time of liftoff and the ascent trajectory expected and referring to a time-and-angle chart without watching the video feed in real time! According to Fendell: Now, the way that worked was this. Harley Weyer, who worked for me, sat down and figured what the ...


38

From the Voyager FAQ Question: Can the Voyager imaging cameras be turned back on? Answer: It is possible for the cameras to be turned on, but it is not a priority for Voyager's Interstellar Mission. After Voyager 1 took its last image (the "Solar System Family Portrait" in 1990), the cameras were turned off to save power and memory for the ...


38

The radiation dosage for a year on the moon is between 110 mSv and 380 mSv. On Earth, that dosage is 2.4 mSv, or higher, depending on where you are exactly. Bottom line, the few days in Lunar orbit would have aged the film due to radiation between 50-150 days/ day in orbit maximum, thus it would be the equivalent of film that was aged a few years at most. ...


38

I have no first-hand knowledge of what was used for the SpaceX abort test, but the image in the question looks very similar to the tracking imagery from the AIRS-WAVE system on NASA's WB-57 planes. @ErinAnne found a tweet by FlightRadar24 that shows a WB-57 flying for the launch and links to a detailed track. AIRS is the Airborne Imaging and Recording ...


35

A caveat about this answer: it's not about SpaceX directly, more about the use of self-inspection cameras in general across space and launch vehicles. It is used for engineering and status information. "Selfie" footage has been standard (at least on launch vehicles) since Apollo. Telemetry offers a very limited view of things and is prone to ...


32

I believe they are and my network analysis tools show nearly constant transmission (data bandwidth remains the same), even when the image is all black or all gray. According to High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) Experiment quick notes on its USTREAM channel: Black Image = International Space Station (ISS) is on the night side of the Earth. Gray ...


24

Most conventional motion detectors wouldn't work well on Mars. PIR: Usually only works well with warm bodies such as humans and animals. Would probably never trigger on Mars Ultrasonic: Due to the extremely low pressure on Mars any acoustic sensing through the atmosphere would be greatly hindered. These sensors usually only pick up on very large, ...


23

Yes, this is a real Lincoln cent and it makes part of the camera calibration target for the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) instrument. A geologist tradition is to place coins (or other object of a known size) besides photographed objects to show the scale of the photograph. This seems to be a homage to this tradition. For details see: Lincoln Cent on Mars ...


23

These were the last photos Voyager 1 took, on February 14, 1990: This became known as the "Pale Blue Dot" photo. And the Solar System Family Portrait: Voyager 1 had traveled 6 billion km at that time. After these images were taken, the camera was shut down as @Pearson says. Voyager took 60 photos. This shows all of them: On some of the photos, you can ...


22

Radiation can affect film - but bear in mind the radiation around Chernobyl was, truly, extremely high. The radiation in our region of space is not as extreme. Also bear in mind that the earlier Lunar Orbiter probes used film cameras, the pictures were developed and scanned automatically (by machinery on board) and the results transmitted to Earth. The ...


21

I think it's important to understand the timeline here. The footage we've all been amazed by was acquired by a collection of slightly-hardened small, light, high-quality commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras, helped by a fast, very-low-power processor (I think a Qualcomm SnapDragon: this processor is much faster than Perseverance's main processors!) and ...


20

New Horizons was designed to do a fly-by of Pluto in a relatively large distance. It was only in range of Pluto for a couple of hours. Dawn is designed to orbit Ceres at much closer range. To accomplish its mission, New Horizons had to have such a high resolution camera to get the desired results. Instruments are designed specifically for a certain mission. ...


20

The feeds were identical throughout the flight. It was definitely recorded from the same booster. At booster separation you can clearly see the shoreline. If it was the camera view from the other booster the background would be rotated by 180°, which it wasn't: Also the RCS puffs happened at the exact same time, which is highly unlikely as the boosters have ...


19

When calibrating a camera, there are typically 3 things that are used: Some sort of a color pallet A line chart of some sort to identify the fine resolution A real object, to make sure there isn't something fundamentally wrong. NASA followed this same suit, choosing the penny to be the real object, claiming that it give homage to the practice of using ...


19

NASA studied the effects of radiation on film. Bright spots are just one of the possible results. Other effects include an increase in the amount of noise, and a decrease in contrast and color response. These effects are not easily detectable to the untrained eye and without access to the original material. In this study, NASA also experimented with ...


19

The cameras were ejected from the stages and parachuted into the sea. If you watch this video you can see cameras being ejected from stages at exactly 5:00 and 7:42. There's also a good discussion on Collect Space including a picture of one of the modules after it has been fished out of the ocean.


18

It was the Moon. It was illuminated at roughly 85-86% as seen from low Earth's orbit at the time of deployment, so pretty bright, and roughly directly overhead of the Americas. Deployment camera was pointing more or less backwards with respect to upper stage's velocity vector and the upper stage was tracking roughly over the Atlantic ocean West of Europe 17 ...


18

JunoCam used different technologies than does the typical framing camera one buys at a store. A typical digital color camera uses a Bayer filter pattern, a row of alternating tiny blue and green filters, followed by a row of alternating tiny green and red filters, each filter covering a pixel, followed by a row of alternating tiny blue and green filters, and ...


17

Will the HiRes camera of the Chinese orbiter be capable of seeing the shadows of the US landers and rovers on Mars? tl;dr: Yes it can, IF it passes over one of them, and at the right time of day for shadow-making! But chances are low that they're going to waste time doing that. They have to put a rover safely on the surface and so they will be targeting ...


16

EPIC (PDF) is a Cassegrain type reflector telescope so there's the fixed hyperbolic secondary mirror in the middle of the telescopes light path / focal plane. While that could be removed during post-processing and combining multiple exposures focusing at slightly different angles of the telescope itself (or shifting of the sensor on the focal plane, depends ...


15

DSN time is competitive, and not cheap. So, besides the costs that Tom mentioned in getting the camera there (and an appropriate relay satellite), you have to consider the costs of getting the data back to the earth. For the space station, it's only ~370km (230 miles) up ... relatively close, and they can use much smaller dishes than what's required to get ...


15

"With some modifications" for space environment is a time and money-intensive activity, at least if you want it to work. You'd need some serious justification for such a camera on a mission that is already highly cost-constrained. There is always a color camera on a Mars rover anyway, usually with much more than three color filters, so its color vision is ...


15

There is value added. I was an operator of a satellite that had a video of the satellite being deployed. We were able to see from the video that the deployment was clean. I assume if nothing goes wrong, the only value is PR, but if something does go wrong, video can help considerably. EDIT: This kind of thing is exactly what might be useful from the ZUMA ...


14

This will be somewhat different for each launch site, but at most launch facilities, among its buildings, there would also be some that resemble an astronomy observatory with a rotating dome on top (cupola).                          &...


13

There were ejectable camera pods, here's a picture of one. Used on Saturn I-Bs and Saturn Vs through Apollo 8. Full writeup here, other good info here.


11

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has a camera called HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment), launched in 2005-08-12, which is the highest resolution camera in orbit of Mars at an altitude that varies from 200 to 400 kilometers (about 125 to 250 miles) above the martian surface by Carrier rocket Atlas V-401. The High Resolution Imaging Science ...


11

Red because of the color of the planet - we need to be able to see the most red detail, as that's what most of the planet is colored. Blue-green because we don't really need to see blue and green individually. If it's not red, it's enough to know that it's blue or green. Now, the near-infrared sensor. Why? It turns out that information on mineral groups ...


11

According to this blog post, the artefact was caused by scattered light reflected off some element inside the telescope. The ghostly circular pupil image and the little dots that are moving around in the image (and that aren’t JR1) are scattered light from a nearby bright star. LORRI isn’t that big of a telescope – just a little bit smaller than an 8-inch ...


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