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LOX/CO propulsion systems will have a lower Isp compared to LOX/CH4 based systems. So for an equivalent delta-v (or mission application) this will translate to an increased amount of propellant that needs to be extracted from the Mars environment. There is however an advantage to CO-based rockets on Mars: the propellant can be produced entirely from the ...


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There are several arguments which favour Mars over Mercury as a candidate for human missions. Getting there and coming home As the question and other answers have highlighted, the delta-v for transferring to Mercury is significantly higher than required for transferring to Mars. This will translate to monumentally higher propellant and launch costs for the ...


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There is an excellent article on the topic in Nature: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41526-019-0076-1 So far, the issue of medication shelflife has been dealt with by re-supply, so the study of radiation stability has been “back-shelved” (pun intentional). There is certainly concern for reduced potency as well as toxic byproducts in drugs which have ...


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Valleys share many of the access and safety issues and geographic limitations of caves. Unless you're very lucky to find the perfect lava tube/valley right next to a good landing site, you will probably need to do blasting and heavy construction to build an access, level the floor, clear or secure unstable areas, etc. With the same equipment, you could dig a ...


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