10

They are provided to help damp out combustion instabilities. The main injector uses cooled baffle elements, developed at Glenn in the 1960s to control pressure waves that could destroy the engine. Pressure waves in the space shuttle main engine combustion chamber are also controlled by acoustic cavities. Testing by Glenn engineers determined the ...


6

You can referthis book Modern Engineering for Design of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines chapter 4. It depends the on the number of performance parameters such as $C_f, C^*$ and $I_{sp}$. From which the Throat area is calculated. Throat area is usually used as a starting point to have the thrust chamber dimensions. Characteristic length and Contraction ...


5

Restartable hydrogen-oxygen engines like the RL10 (used on the Delta and Atlas upper stages) and J-2 (used on Saturn) use spark ignition. On the J-2, the spark igniter is positioned above the fuel injector face, in a small chamber above the main combustion chamber. It's apparently uncooled and actually operates continuously during engine firing. Presumably ...


4

The ACES upper stage (in development at the moment) is being designed to do without an external source of pressurizing gas: Fundamentally IVF is a Hydrogen/Oxygen auxiliary power unit, that uses free boiloff hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity (eliminating main vehicle batteries), provide autogenous tank pressurization (eliminating most or all ...


4

No, the Centaur with its RL-10 engines requires tank pressurization. Helium Supply and Pressurization System - Helium is the main pressurant used for tank pressurization. Typically, four 26-inch diameter high-pressure helium bottles mounted on the aft bulkhead are used for storage. They are made of a graphite/epoxy composite overwrap enveloping a ...


3

'tubes' aren't enough. You want an injector, in order to atomize the fuel and oxidizer and mix them. A simple one is the pintle injector, which has concentric openings for the fuel and oxidizer. Fuel being injected: and oxidizer: Other injectors have lots of openings alternating fuel and oxidizer, like the F-1 engine used in the Saturn V: You also ...


2

Inconel is chosen because it has a much higher melting point than copper, so the engine can be run at a high temperature.


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