18

All that computing power is not dedicated to the Artemis project. As you quote in the body of your question, The new supercomputer will be used by more than 1,500 scientists and engineers from across the country, including on projects like developing a more efficient quadcopter or simulating the inside of our sun. Not all of this computing power is ...


12

Though what's in the Voyager remains to be seen, the Performance Study of Viterbi Decoding as Related to Space Communications1 gives a description of such a system implemented on Earth for the ground station: It is not the prototype, it is the final version. The prototype may have required about 4 to 8 times the volume. Not a real monster, but filling a ...


10

Does the "modeling and simulations of the entry, decent and landing to the moon" really need 46,000+ cores, 3.69 petaflops and 221 TB of memory? No. A machine with the power of a Raspberry Pi is good enough for solving some simulation problems. A nice desktop machine will have more than enough oomph for solving many, many more simulation problems. On the ...


10

This user guide seems to be reasonably recent (2017) and answers your question. The solid state recorder (SSR) onboard JWST can hold at least 58.8 Gbytes of recorded science data. JWST downlinks science data in two 4-hr contacts per day; each contact can transmit at least 28.6 Gbytes of recorded science data to the ground. So it can hold about 1 ...


10

It has been used all the way to the edge of the solar system: Pioneer 10 and 11 used core memory. Voyager 1 and 2 use plated-wire memory (a variation of core memory). Viking 1 and 2 used plated-wire memory.


9

The IBM AP-101S used as the flight computer on the Space Shuttle in the latter part of the program was known to ops personnel as the General Purpose Computer (GPC). Each of the 5 GPCs in the Data Processing System (DPS) had 256k (yes k) of CMOS memory. This memory was volatile and prone to corruption by radiation (Single Event Upsets, SEUs). Thus there ...


9

The Apollo guidance computer was built with RTL logic. RTL was followed by DTL and later by TTL. The Apollo guidance computer used only a dual three input NOR gate. Integrated RTL logic was introduced 1961, DTL 1962 and TTL 1963. The Gemini computer was built without integrated circuits, only discrete components, see Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA ...


9

PCI can be used over VPX. On the Wikipedia page in the specification section, you can see that PCI Express over the VPX connector is standardized as VITA 46.4. VPX lets you use any supported protocol with the same connectors. Given how difficult it is to get hardware "space rated," that makes sense. One set of hardware that covers a large range ...


8

They will help Artemis, but not how you might think Experience with the Apollo program tells us how much computing power it takes to get to the moon. The spacecraft itself was controlled by the Apollo Guidance Computer, which had an instruction set, instruction speed, and memory space somewhat comparable to the microcontroller inside a microwave oven today....


7

(Sorry that I am not an insider, but I did spend a half-day working on this answer.) Various versions of the iMac G3 used the PowerPC 750, 750CX, and 750CXe. The RAD750 comes in two versions: "rad-tolerant" and "rad-hardened". According to a quote in this question, InSight used the rad-hardened version. BAE (the manufacturer of the ...


7

In general, the astronauts could operate the spacecraft autonomously without help from mission control. Specifically, you could land on the far side of the moon. The Apollo spacecraft each had a guidance computer, but these were considerably limited in program memory and processing speed. The difficult calculations were performed on IBM mainframes back in ...


7

There are two parts of the Answer: 1.) Cyber Security in critical infrastructure: For safety reasons (not only in space but in all professions) you need physically separated networks when operating critical infrastructure. Think of the engineers in the 90s developing the station, they didn't want the crew to install WinAmp for entertainment on the same ...


7

The National Archives website has the stock footage for the NASA documentary "This is Mission Control". In the footage they show closeup shots of several screen in the MOCR and the staff support rooms. The footage is from October 1970, so it's probably safe to assume the screens show data for an Apollo 14 simulation run. Here are two examples from it. Lunar ...


7

According to "Military Implications of the Transfer of Semiconductor Technology to the USSR", the Minuteman II used "monolithic TTL" integrated circuits https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000969810.pdf These were likely custom TTL chips made by Texas Instruments, predating the military 5400 version of the 7400 family. Whic ICBMs ...


6

These are the best I've seen. They are from the recent restoration of the Apollo MOCR but are accurate AFAIK. Source: https://wordpress.accuweather.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/mission-control-7.jpg I ran across a document that might be of use. It's basically the handbook for creating MCC displays of that era. It contains a great deal of in-depth info ...


6

Every computational device used in space has to be tolerant to vibrations. Launch is a very shaky process. Every computational system used in space has to be tolerant of various forms of radiation. The Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere provide very nice shielding against solar and cosmic radiation. That shielding is gone above the Van Allen Belts. Note ...


5

The Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab was launched by NASA and Google circa May 2013, and here is the original blog post where this launch was announced by Hartmut Neven (leader of the quantum team at Google). There you can see, that the stated goal was to study how quantum computers might be used for machine learning. In reality, 512 qubits is nowhere ...


5

The HPE Apollo was installed on the ISS as part of this experiment: High Performance Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Computer System on the ISS (Spaceborne Computer) - 09.19.18 According to news reports, the computer will return to Earth on SpaceX CRS-17 in February or March of 2019 (e.g, this November 1, 2018 Fast Company report): With three or four months ...


5

That appears to be the description of the Block 1. The Block 2 is the one with 36 kilowords of memory. It additionally seems to be wrong about the number of bits in the Bank register. https://www.ibiblio.org/apollo/Block1.html#CPU_Architecture_Registers has the Block 1 details, and states that the high 5 bits of the Bank register are used. https://www....


5

There's at least one projector that gets used for movies. From the ISS National Laboratory blog post Movie Night on the International Space Station: NASA astronaut, Joe Acaba, posted this image showing the crew relaxing together while watching a movie. According to him “I can’t think of a better movie theater to watch Star Wars than on the Space Station!” ...


5

According to Computers in Spaceflight, the Voyager Attitude Articulation and Control System Computer. Dubbed "HYPACE," for Hybrid Programmable Attitude Control Electronics, it was a byte-serial processor with substantial power. Using the same 4K, 18-bit-wide plated-wire memory from the Viking Orbiter computer, HYPACE added transistor-transistor ...


4

The same way all space electronics are radiation hardened. Shielding it directly is not the only way to protect electronics. Instead, radiation-resistant hardware (such as silicon-on-insulator transistors) and logical systems (EDAC/Error Detection And Correction or ECC/Error Correcting Code). Triple Modular Redundancy is really common as well, where three ...


4

Upper left: KSC control room for the Instrument Unit during the launch of Apollo 8. I am not sure if this is the Launch Control Center Firing Room or a back room. I think a back room. (reference) Upper right - the Instrument Unit itself as described in this answer Lower left - Launch Control Center Firing Room at KSC, looking away from the window (the ...


4

From the open access article The Mars 2020 Engineering Cameras and Microphone on the Perseverance Rover: A Next-Generation Imaging System for Mars Exploration, emphasis at the end mine, Data Storage Unit (DSU) In addition to six cameras and a microphone, the EDLCAM system includes two data storage units (DSUs) and two USB3 hubs. The DSU is an off-the-shelf ...


3

Question: If the Voyagers' lowest playback speed is 7200 bits per second, how does it transmit to Earth at only 160 bps? It doesn't. The 160 bps transmission is real-time data rather than playback data. The playback data is rather infrequent and was at 1400 bps. (It may be at 600 bps now.) From https://voyager.gsfc.nasa.gov/Library/DeepCommo_Chapter3--...


3

Background for people unfamiliar with core rope: The Apollo Guidance Computer used core ropes for high-density read-only memory (which they called fixed memory). Like regular erasable core memory, core rope used magnetic cores, small ferrite rings. But unlike erasable cores, it stored many bits per core. The trick was to put many wires through each core, ...


3

The Apollo flight computers where quite heavy, and consumed a fair amount of power (32kg and 55 watts). While not a game changer even small mass savings in the batteries and hardware could be of significant use. If you open the question up to non flight hardware then yes. Being able to model the complex fluid, combustion and other dynamics could have led to ...


3

The first space probe using distributed computing was Voyager: Voyager employs three dual-redundant computer systems per spacecraft. The first, the CCS, is nearly identical to that flown on Viking, performing sequencing and spacecraft health functions along with new ones necessitated by the addition of the other computers. Telemetry data formatting and ...


2

What could be the complete internal architecture of my payload's OBDH system? I would use a Raspberry Pi model 3b+, connected to a camera module. You may run the latest version of Raspbian (a Linux flavor based on Debian) and configure the startup scripts to start streaming footage. Which processor should I use for fast processing, less power budget? ...


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