# Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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### Long term sustainability of Space Flight

I'm doing a little research for a fictional book that posits a future where manned space travel is not possible. What are some of the known risks towards long term sustainability of manned space ...
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### What are some interesting incidents happened in the space exploration? [closed]

I would like to know interesting stories/incidents happened in space or out of the earth. And on Earth as well while preparing for missions. Like Apollo 16 module pilot Ken Mattingly lost his wedding ...
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### Has there ever been manned mission plans by any Space Agency to go to a solar system object other than the Moon and Mars?

As we know there are manned mission plans to go to Mars and people has been in the Moon already. Has there ever been manned mission plans by any Space Agency, to go to a solar system object other than ...
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### What are “applied moments of inertia” in the context of STS-61B's EASE/ACCESS?

This answer links to https://history.nasa.gov/spacesuits.pdf which shows the image below. (fyi Wikipedia's STS-61 is not to be confused with STS-61A, STS-61B or STS-61C, see answers to Why so many STS-...
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### SpaceX Crew Dragon depressurization for emergency EVA

As far as I know, the Crew Dragon does not have an airlock. Therefore, if astronauts inside needed to go outside for some reason, they'd need to suit up, depressurize the cabin, and then they'd be ...
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### How long can Crew Dragon stay at ISS?

It appears that the first manned Crew Dragon flight to ISS may be extended due to there being only one US astronaut there. NASA is also trying to determine how long Dragon's first crewed mission ...
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### IVA space Suit leakage

What is the allowed suit leakage for Sokol suit at 40kPa/5.8 psi. What is the allowed leak rate in IVA shuttle suits at 24 kPa/3.5 psi. What is the allowed leak rate from IVA suit helmet
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### How to estimate which astronaut ends up furthest from the ISS after one orbit?

Three astronauts; Goofus, Gallant and Zippy the Pinhead play a game. All three take their cold gas thruster-powered jet packs and quickly move 100 meters away from the ISS. For some reason after ...
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### Does the speed of ISS slow down at the time of a spacewalk or does it become stationary?

The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting at nearly 7.66 km/s. At such high speeds, how do astronauts perform tasks outside the ISS? Or is it all relative like astronauts are having same speed ...
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### Why do SpaceX expect the Falcon 9 rocket to explode during the in flight abort test?

This article - https://futurism.com/spacex-blow-falcon-9-rocket-launch/amp - states that after 88 seconds, the first stage engines will shut down, and an automated abort command will be sent to the ...
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### Would it be possible to grab on to a satellite, and use it to keep yourself in orbit in an emergency situation?

You are orbiting Earth when your spacecraft falls apart and you are left flying through space. Will your spacesuit keep you alive long enough to be rescued? Or will your orbit lower to quickly and you ...
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### Dealing with lunar regolith

NASA has announced its intention to return astronauts to the Moon by 2024. Various other questions and answers here address the many dangers and difficulties posed by the fine and abrasive particles ...
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### Given unlimited funding and global cooperation, could there have been a manned space craft made in the year 1850-1860? [closed]

All my life, I've been speculating in my head about all kinds of "alternative timelines". One of the most intriguing to me are all the ones that concern space and "steampunk" technology. Recently, I ...
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### Mars and back, staying only a few days

This article states that once you arrive at Mars you'll only have a couple of weeks before you'd have to begin a fresh Hohmann transfer back to Earth, otherwise you'll have to hang out on Mars for ...
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### Potential catastrophic death on the ISS from mistakes

Other than from decompression and fire, what other ways has NASA or the Russian space program identified unique ways someone on the ISS could die suddenly, in particular from human error with the ...
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### How long will Blue Origin's New Shepard space tourist flights last?

I tried searching for this, but everything I found says the New Shepard flights will last only a few minutes. Does Blue Origin have stated (or show evidence of likely future) plans for the ...
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### Have there been any spacecraft designs with a bilaterally asymmetric cockpit?

One of the things that makes the Star Wars films so visually distinctive is the asymmetric spaceships, for example the Millennium Falcon below whose cockpit is located in the top right corner as ...
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### What does NASA intend to do about the Martian day in regards to the astronauts who go there?

The Martian day is about 40 minutes longer than an Earth day. What does NASA intend to do about the Martian day in regards to the Mars mission? Will they adjust the astronauts to their landing day ...
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### Can jet engines be used to launch a rocket?

Following up on my previous question Can a VASIMR Plasma engine be used to launch a rocket?, I was told that VASIMR plasma thrusters are inefficient in an atmosphere. I then had the idea of using jet ...
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### Can a VASIMR Plasma engine be used to launch a rocket?

When I was in primary school, I spent countless hours designing spaceships that probably wouldn’t work. It’s only now that I’ve stumbled across some of the old drawings and actually thought if it ...
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### How much piloting did the Apollo astronauts actually do?

I understand Armstrong landed the Eagle manually, and Apollo 13 did a manual burn. Other than emergencies like that, did the Apollo astronauts do much piloting of the spacecraft.
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### Astronauts' sleeping heart rate on the ISS

On Earth during non-REM sleep a person's heart rate goes down. Does the same thing happen on the ISS, or does the non-REM sleeping heart rate remain close to the heart rate of the astronaut while ...
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### Solutions for transporting water to space

If water is the cheapest, and most usable radiation shield material for human space travel, how do we get large amounts of it to orbit?
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### Do astronauts on the ISS refer to themselves as standing?

When on the CEVIS,(Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation Stabilization) I'm assuming the astronauts would say they are sitting. When they secure their feet under a blue IVA rail do they say they ...
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### Does space sickness determine when astronauts have their last meal?

During the shuttle program how long before launch would an astronaut eat? With almost 50% of astronauts experiencing space adaptation syndrome, and the possibility of vomiting, did the astronauts ...
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### When might we get fourteen people in space?

The record for the number of people in space at one time is thirteen, which has been set a few different times (as discussed in this question, this other question, and this article). In order: March ...
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### Do the astronauts hear noise in their headsets?

Even before the launch of STS-135 there is plenty of noise recorded while the astronauts were speaking to each other and the people on the ground. Do the astronauts hear the same noise that is ...
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### Which build materials for a long-term crewed space vehicle? (no launch)

So the prerequisites for this question are, of course, strength vs mass. The lighter, the better, in all circumstances, however it still needs to be strong enough to have people inside it and to hold ...
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### What exactly makes PHP CLI fundamentally unsuitable to power all the math on board a space craft?

Let's say that there is an eccentric multi-trillionare who made his fortune by coding a very popular service in PHP. He knows it very well, and has such a love for it that he makes a rather unorthodox ...
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### Ion Drives specific impulse somewhat of a false economy?

I've been working through a thought experiment with a friend of mine, with some of my previous questions already being (very helpfully) answered on here :) Here's the current issue I have though - ...
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### Optimal shape for a spinning ship/station - downsides of spheres? (Radiation shielding)

What is the optimum shape for a spacecraft? So I've already read this link, and a few other similar ones, and the main issues I am already aware of... but yet it still seems like a large majority of ...
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### Algae Bioreactor for O2 and CO2 (and food?) - Any data on required size and power requirements?

I believe that the requirements for a single persons $\require{mhchem}\ce{O2}$/$\ce{CO2}$ balance run somewhere in the region of $8m^2$ of algae, which would seem to be possible in a single \$\approx ...
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### Looking for fuel mass per kg payload data for Ion drives

I'm looking for some information on what the fuel/propellant mass per kg of payload is for ion drives. Hall X3 or VASIMR or whichever is currently the 'best' that we have available. This isn't for ...
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### Looking for figures for contemporary interstellar engine options

So I have already done... a lot of reading on this subject lately. A lot. You wouldn't believe. My maths is... functional, probably far above 'average', but when it gets into the realms of the 'rocket ...
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### What would be the cost of a thorium reactors at the core of a large starship? [closed]

Thorium is a high power substance that can contains large amounts of energy in a small space. How much would it cost to install and maintain one on a large starship? As well as using solar panels, ...
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### What went wrong with Apollo 15 astronaut Al Worden's seat when he was all alone, circularizing?

The X article NASA shock: Apollo 15 astronaut's Moon landing confession - 'Can't do anything to me now' says "NASA astronaut Alfred "Al" Worden dropped an astonishing Apollo 15 confession, claiming ...
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### Crew Positioning in ISS during Reboost

Several questions address the reboosting procedure for the ISS. When the shuttle reboosted the station, apparently the entire ISS was modeled on the ground and pre-programmed in, down to the masses ...
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### Have there ever been any incidents where something valuable was unintentionally throw out with the trash?

In "What do astronauts do with their trash on the ISS?", a commentator asked the title question and was encouraged to make it a new question, but apparently never did. The linked question is ...
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### How can an Astronaut survive for six days inside a Spacesuit?

In the video #AskNASA | What are the Next Generation Spacesuits?, spacesuit engineer Dustin Gohmert says the following about the Orion Crew Survival Suit (Orange Spacesuit): This suit is also ...
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### Why weren't there any manned moon landings in the recent decades? [duplicate]

The last time a human landed on the moon was back in the 1970s. Why haven't there been any manned moon missions since? I understand that the US deemed them less important after winning the race to the ...
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### How are astronauts in the ISS protected from electric shock?

On Earth, most of the electrical appliances having exposed metal parts, such as electric iron, are grounded, to protect the user from electric shock when an uninsulated-wire accidentally comes into ...
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### How long to get to Geostationary Orbit? [closed]

Fictional Planet has a gravity of approximately 0.68g Geostationary orbit of said fictional planet is approximately 32,000 km above the surface according to online calculator. Spacecraft capable of ...
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### What does this NASA administrator's tweeted statement mean? What is the context? [closed]

Background: Teslarati's NASA head calls out SpaceX CEO Elon Musk over Starship event in bizarre statement might serve as a resource for answers if the question is successfully reopened. Question: ...
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### Term used to identify the blue bars/rails in the ISS?

The interior of the ISS is filled with blue bars used by astronauts to secure their feet and remain in one place. Does NASA have a term for these?
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### Space adaptation syndrome compared to BPPV (vertigo)

Has there ever been any discussion comparing the typical SAS experience and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (when tiny calcium particles clump up in canals of the inner ear). Having recently ...
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### Tracking the Soyuz MS-15 approaching the ISS with binoculars

Next Wednesday, September 25th, the Soyuz MS-15 will be launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome. I guess the trip to the ISS will be long (6 hrs to 24 hr) as usual. I want to see both the ISS and the ...
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### Aerosol products in space

I am assuming aerosol products are not used inside the living environment of a spacecraft while it is microgravity. Is that correct, or are there examples of such products being used while an ...
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### Did Apollo carry and use WD40?

It appears from this question that Apollo missions carried Duct Tape and used it for in-flight fixups. Did they carry the other half of the "Universal Repair Kit" - WD40 (or similar)? If so, was it ...