Mission design can be used for the trajectory designers, working iteratively with various other teams to come up with a feasible mission.
Trajectory design and navigation can also be termed flight dynamics, and then mission design can include flight dynamics but also can be a systems role, helping interface between many teams to design a mission that meets ...
I think this term varies by organisation. In my expereience it is a multidisciplinary topic.
Whilst a key part of mission analysis is how to get to and around the orbit, as large an effort has to be put into:
what orbit is needed in the first place (is it even a satellite, how do different orbit options meet the payload requirements best) and which way does ...
For the shuttle program this work was called "flight design".
DM - Organization code for Flight Design and Dynamics Division
GPC - General Purpose Computer
ISS - International Space Station
LVLH - Local Vertical Local Horizontal
OI - Operational Increment
Rbar - Radius vector
TORRA - Twice Orbital Rate Rbar Approach
Vbar - Velocity ...
Yes, there are people whose sole job is "mission design." They design the trajectory that a spacecraft should follow to fulfill its mission and all of the maneuvers needed for that to happen. Some companies specialize in mission design consulting, like Space Exploration Engineering, Advanced Space LLC, or the X Team from JPL (although the latter ...
I am pretty sure that it has never been tried recreationally or as a demo. An extinguisher would have to be brought to space just for that purpose, since there is no way they would use one meant for safety just for fun. And extinguishers tend to be messy. I don't know what kind they use in space, but again I am doubtful they would discharge one unless it was ...
If you look on YouTube (or various other places) you will have no problem seeing people using fire extinguishers to propel office chairs (and other devices). The physics in space is no different - you are basically talking about a rocket, indeed the difference between a water-based fire extinguisher and a water-bottle rocket is pretty trivial.