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1

The Wikipedia article on MSL lists the lander mass as 899 kg and the entry system mass as 2401 kg, for a total mass just before entry of 3300 kg. Before parachute deployment several tungsten balance masses with a total mass of 300 kg were ejected (150 kg before entry and 150 kg after primary deceleration and heating were past), decreasing the mass to 3000 kg....


6

Emily Lakdawalla gives an explanation in the Curiosity Update, Sols 2313-2387: Two New Drill Holes Despite Memory Problems on the website of The Planetary Society. The drilling was incredibly easy going; the rover needed to use no percussion, only drill rotation. It's possible that the easy going resulted from the rock being thinner than the length of ...


2

After the fact, we now know that Curiosity is allowed to investigate the clay unit. The first clay sample was taken in April 2019 Later samples have verified findings about water in the Gale crater, and brought data about the clay's mineral contents. The same area has also been shown to contain salt deposits The rover has followed the possible trajectory ...


6

As described in The Development of the MSL Guidance, Navigation, and Control System for Entry, Descent, and Landing, the sky crane only has the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS), which only has a doppler radar and no camera. There are therefore no images of Curiosity during the sky crane operations


3

As noted in the answer by Michael, a precise chemical composition is not known at this time. We can, however, consider the overall mineral composition on the surface of the Gale Crater. This diagram provided by Curiosity's CheMin analyzer (source) shows that the composition varies with depth inside the crater: The lower part of the crater contains large ...


3

Mudstone, although the precise chemical composition is unknown at this time (at least to the extent I was able to find it out). From the Planetary Society, it is identified as being mudstone. Unfortunately, from wikipedia, it is clear that mudstone is a very general type of mineral and can be composed of many different things, as long as it was once ...


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