73

Yes, here is a picture of the Curiosity lander spacecraft taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The picture was taken about one minute prior to the landing of Curiosity. Image from https://www.space.com/16946-mars-rover-landing-seen-from-space.html If landed craft are allowed, there are also pictures of Mars rovers from Mars orbiters, asteroid ...


58

The Arecibo raqdio telescope has a $300\ \mathrm m$ diameter mirror. Let's consider a radio wavelength of $3\ \mathrm{cm}$ ($10\ \mathrm{GHz}$) for convenience of arithmetic. That gives a diffraction limited beam width of $100\ \mathrm{µrad}$, so at 100 light years, the signal would be spread over an area $10^{14}\ \mathrm m$ across. The Arecibo signal was ...


50

The Mars Odyssey orbiter was photographed by Mars Global Surveyor in 2005. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mgs_odyssey.gif https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07941 Figure 1: Why There are Two Images of Odyssey NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft appears twice in the same frame in this image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars ...


49

I wrote the article you are referencing. @Hobbes has it exactly correct. It is a lightweight vehicle that can launch on even a small rocket, and takes advantage of gravity assists and favorable celestial mechanics to catch Triton at just the right time for encounter with the plumes illuminated. It will image the entirety of Triton in sunlight on approach, ...


33

@SteveLinton's answer is excellent and I'll just confirm below that its logic and numbers are correct. Then I'll show that you can do it optically as well, but with 10 meter telescopes instead of Arecibos you run into a challenge because each individual light photon carries most of the total received power per second. Radio From this answer: One ...


28

some examples: LRO images of the Apollo landing sites. This is Apollo 11: Cassini and Huygens: this is Huygens as seen by Cassini, 12 hours after Huygens was released. Rosetta and Philae. During descent: Philae's final landing location: Hayabusa 2 and its many landers. This is a photo of Minerva-II-2 taken by Hayabusa 2:


16

For a case with more extreme relative motion than most of the other answers, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (polar orbit) imaged the LADEE orbiter (close to equatorial orbit) in 2014: The LADEE appears rather distorted because the image was taken with a pushbroom camera, not the more familiar framing camera, so LADEE moves between lines relative to the ...


15

Very short answer They are different generations of the same family of interplanetary spacecrafts. Short answer Zond 2, as well as Zond 1 and -3; and Venera 2 and -3, were interplanetary spacecrafts (in Soviet/Russian classification this category falls under "automated interplanetary station") of 3MV family 3MV English Wikipedia page (in Russian "3МВ" 3МВ ...


14

You can also find photos of some Mars rovers from various orbiters/satellites: Opportunity from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter After a planet-wide dust storm in June 2018 blocked the Opportunity rover's solar panels, NASA scientists waited for images from the planet to clear. This image, captured Sept. 20 by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, was among the ...


14

It's a fast flyby in the $500M cost class (a Discovery mission). So not really comparable to Beresheet. A rare, low Δv trajectory (Fig. 1) enables an MMRTG-powered spacecraft fitting under the Discovery cost cap. The mission would have to be launched in 2026, for a Neptune encounter in 2038. New Horizons has effectively demonstrated the scientific ...


10

It has been used all the way to the edge of the solar system: Pioneer 10 and 11 used core memory. Voyager 1 and 2 use plated-wire memory (a variation of core memory). Viking 1 and 2 used plated-wire memory.


8

James Webb Space Telescope Program Scientist Dr. Eric Smith spoke about this on TMRO recently. The main reason is that the telescope wasn't designed to be serviced so it is not as modular as Hubble and systems are integrated throughout the telescope rather than being discrete units that can be removed and replaced like on Hubble. It was designed like this ...


8

In a similar vein to Organic Marble's answer: The Phoenix lander was captured during its descent on May 25, 2008, hanging from its parachute with crater Heimdall in the distant background, and again after landing on Mars and deploying its solar panels, by the HiRISE camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. (Source: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/phoenix/...


6

NASA photographed what was left of the India Vikram Lunar Lander from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter


6

It is a “Fast Mission” opportunity. These are missions that address an opportunity in the near future that would possibly be missed with the normal mission development timeline. Historically, ESA missions are classified as Large (L), Medium (M) or Small (S). The distinction is not on size of the payload, but on the technology development required for the ...


6

The Voyager spacecraft had nearly no propulsion capabilities. They were launched on a "Grand Tour" trajectory that would use gravity assists to provide encounters with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and optionally Pluto. In order to follow this trajectory, the route the spacecraft can take past each planet is very strongly constrained. Major ...


5

The Active Seismic Experiment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package carried four grenades. They weighed 2.67, 2.19, 1.70, and 1.52 pounds each. Like Hayabusa-2's numbers, I'm not sure how much of that weight was explosive, but it does give something to compare to. Source: ALSEP Flight System Familiarization Manual, p. 2-166.


5

Spacecraft don't rot, nor do they rust (since there is not enough free oxygen anywhere but Earth), but they do degrade in various ways: The most obvious is that chemical and electrical equipment like batteries and on-board computers are severely degraded by the extreme cold and variations of temperature that happen. Electrical equipment is also damaged by ...


5

From this answer: In the Planetary Society's Senior Editor and Planetary Evangelist Emily Lakdawalla's article Fun with a new data set: Chang'e 3 lander and Yutu rover camera data there are several photos from Chang'e-3 and the Yutu rover. above: Chang'e 3 photographed by the Yutu rover, January 13, 2014 read more Chinese Academy of Sciences / ...


5

Magellan (to Venus) Launched May 1989 on STS-30 Galileo (to Jupiter) Launched October 1989 on STS-34 Ulysses (to the Sun) Launched October 1990 on STS-41


5

To Answer your question: How many spacecraft deployed from the ISS have escaped Earth orbit? None Are there plans for any in the near future? No A short proof: Public Sat-Catalog here You can search by "International Designator = 1998-067" and filter "On-Orbit" you will get every known object released (intentionally or not) by the ISS an the ISS ...


4

A single CME will impact a spacecraft from only one direction, but that direction might not be directly from the sun because a CME may zigzag en route. So unless you can know in advance from which direction it's coming, a shield just large enough to block direct solar radiation won't suffice. The farther the spacecraft is from the sun, the smaller (and ...


4

Differences in the resulting data: no close Triton flyby for Voyager 2, differences in what moons could be observed during the Neptune encounter no close Titan flyby for Voyager 1, differences in what moons could be observed during the Saturn encounter possibly a Pluto flyby for Voyager 1 probably some differences in the timing of the heliosheath encounter ...


4

To question about four antennas of the B-529 system: "Is it possible to understand exactly how this worked?" In fig. 5 is a diagram of the analog formation of the B-529 antenna system of the total difference signals of linear polarization separately for vertical and horizontal polarization. There are two stages of signal addition, and in-phase signals are ...


4

The Apollo 13 Service Module was photographed from the Apollo 13 LEM on the way back to Earth. Not sure if this is what you were looking for since they were part of the same mission, were on the way back to Earth and were not far away when they separated and the pictures were taken. On the other hand, they were NOT in orbit.


4

Yet another example, this time involving a spacecraft that was photographed twice, by two different other spacecraft, beyond Earth orbit. The Beagle 2 Mars lander hitchhiked to Mars on the back of Mars Express, and, in a similar vein to Cassini–Huygens above, Mars Express photographed Beagle 2 after the two separated: (Image by the European Space Agency, ...


4

Nothing changed. Note that your plot covers 10 years and not 7. You cited a line from Wikipedia, but didn't check the source given for it: The nominal mission of seven years will see a maximum orbital inclination relative to the solar equator of 25°. During the extended mission, additional Venus GAMs [gravity-assist manoeuvres] could allow the orbital ...


3

Galileo's troubled high gain antenna was made from "a gold-plated molybdenum wire mesh stretched across 18 graphite-epoxy support ribs". It was a copy of a TDRSS antenna, and after its long storage / trajectory rework / redesign / launch history, failed to deploy fully. This resulted in data transmission rates much, much slower than designed. ...


3

Standard commercial optical fibers could be used for data transfer on the Moon or Mars, but they may have a shorter life span than on earth and worse signal quality. The radiation does have an impact on the molecular bonds of the optical fibers which can cause signal degradation. The phenomena is called "Radiation Induced Attenuation" for which you can find ...


3

Where would one deploy deep space atomic clocks? In practically any vehicle that goes beyond Earth orbit. The press releases imply that these Deep Space Atomic Clocks will form the basis of a solar-system wide equivalent of GPS. While that might be the eventual outcome, that is not the immediate advantage. The immediate advantage is that this technology ...


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