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Yes, here is a picture of the Curiosity lander spacecraft taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The picture was taken about one minute prior to the landing of Curiosity. Image from https://www.space.com/16946-mars-rover-landing-seen-from-space.html If landed craft are allowed, there are also pictures of Mars rovers from Mars orbiters, asteroid ...


53

The Mars Odyssey orbiter was photographed by Mars Global Surveyor in 2005. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mgs_odyssey.gif https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07941 Figure 1: Why There are Two Images of Odyssey NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft appears twice in the same frame in this image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars ...


29

some examples: LRO images of the Apollo landing sites. This is Apollo 11: Cassini and Huygens: this is Huygens as seen by Cassini, 12 hours after Huygens was released. Rosetta and Philae. During descent: Philae's final landing location: Hayabusa 2 and its many landers. This is a photo of Minerva-II-2 taken by Hayabusa 2:


18

For a case with more extreme relative motion than most of the other answers, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (polar orbit) imaged the LADEE orbiter (close to equatorial orbit) in 2014: The LADEE appears rather distorted because the image was taken with a pushbroom camera, not the more familiar framing camera, so LADEE moves between lines relative to the ...


15

Very short answer They are different generations of the same family of interplanetary spacecrafts. Short answer Zond 2, as well as Zond 1 and -3; and Venera 2 and -3, were interplanetary spacecrafts (in Soviet/Russian classification this category falls under "automated interplanetary station") of 3MV family 3MV English Wikipedia page (in Russian "3МВ" 3МВ ...


15

You can also find photos of some Mars rovers from various orbiters/satellites: Opportunity from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter After a planet-wide dust storm in June 2018 blocked the Opportunity rover's solar panels, NASA scientists waited for images from the planet to clear. This image, captured Sept. 20 by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, was among the ...


13

With reasonably current technology there are basically three options, I think: A Jupiter gravity assist similar to how the Voyagers themselves got most of their velocity. This could do a bit more by going closer to Jupiter (we know more about the environment there now, and our navigation is better); or by actively boosting at closest approach (how much you ...


10

In a similar vein to Organic Marble's answer: The Phoenix lander was captured during its descent on May 25, 2008, hanging from its parachute with crater Heimdall in the distant background, and again after landing on Mars and deploying its solar panels, by the HiRISE camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. (Source: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/phoenix/...


8

Chemical propulsion is only used extremely sparingly. Since there is no air resistance in space (or, only negligible resistance due to trace gases and solar winds), the probe continues to move. Absent any gravitational influence, the probe would continue in a straight line, forever. This is what the first three of Newtons laws tell us, especially the first. ...


7

July 20, 1976, Mars, Viking 1 lander. In the article "Viking gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer" by Rushneck et al, Review of Scientific Instruments 49:817-834 (1978), section G (pp. 828-9) describes the GCMS's soil loader and pyrolyzer subassembly, which accepts a pulverized soil sample, loads it into an oven, and then seals and heats the oven. ...


7

Almost certainly the vehicle with the most Delta-v post-booster separation was the Dawn spacecraft, with an incredible 11 km/s! Put another way, that is the same amount as the rocket that launched it roughly. This is because of the unique nature of an ion drive, being vastly more efficient than chemical rockets. If it were a chemical rocket, it would have to ...


6

We have the capability to launch this already, so it is feasible, just very expensive when there are better alternatives. A spacecraft as you describe isn't just 50 tons of solar panels, you need a huge structure to hold them on, huge amounts of maneuvering fuel to align the spacecraft, extremely powerful gyros, and other elements that would have to be super-...


6

Yes! It is know as the "Delay Tolerant Network" [1] (prior versions called this the "Disruption Tolerance Network" [2]). It is currently undergoing standardization by the CCSDS. [3] The protocol itself is called the "Bundle Protocol", and an implementation of the BP is available as an open-source Core Flight System application. [...


6

NASA photographed what was left of the India Vikram Lunar Lander from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter


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From this answer: In the Planetary Society's Senior Editor and Planetary Evangelist Emily Lakdawalla's article Fun with a new data set: Chang'e 3 lander and Yutu rover camera data there are several photos from Chang'e-3 and the Yutu rover. above: Chang'e 3 photographed by the Yutu rover, January 13, 2014 read more Chinese Academy of Sciences / ...


6

Yet another example, this time involving a spacecraft that was photographed twice, by two different other spacecraft, beyond Earth orbit. The Beagle 2 Mars lander hitchhiked to Mars on the back of Mars Express, and, in a similar vein to Cassini–Huygens above, Mars Express photographed Beagle 2 after the two separated: (Image by the European Space Agency, ...


6

The Vega 1 balloon that entered the atmosphere of Venus on June 11, 1985, had LEDs on the anemometer: The diameter of the rotating anemometer was 25 cm. The rotor was mounted on ball bearings, and rotation was monitored by a coded disk and two sets of light-emitting diode (LED) light sources and solid-state detectors. Source: VEGA Balloon System and ...


5

To Answer your question: How many spacecraft deployed from the ISS have escaped Earth orbit? None Are there plans for any in the near future? No A short proof: Public Sat-Catalog here You can search by "International Designator = 1998-067" and filter "On-Orbit" you will get every known object released (intentionally or not) by the ISS an the ISS ...


5

Magellan (to Venus) Launched May 1989 on STS-30 Galileo (to Jupiter) Launched October 1989 on STS-34 Ulysses (to the Sun) Launched October 1990 on STS-41


5

The Apollo 13 Service Module was photographed from the Apollo 13 LEM on the way back to Earth. Not sure if this is what you were looking for since they were part of the same mission, were on the way back to Earth and were not far away when they separated and the pictures were taken. On the other hand, they were NOT in orbit.


4

China has done it with NASA China used signals sent from NASA’s Juno probe orbiting Jupiter to test the capabilities of ground stations vital to its deep space ambitions. Scientists involved in developing China’s tracking, telemetry and command (TT&C) capabilities listened-in on signals sent from Juno and successfully determined the spacecraft’s Doppler ...


4

Nothing changed. Note that your plot covers 10 years and not 7. You cited a line from Wikipedia, but didn't check the source given for it: The nominal mission of seven years will see a maximum orbital inclination relative to the solar equator of 25°. During the extended mission, additional Venus GAMs [gravity-assist manoeuvres] could allow the orbital ...


4

First of all, there are no announced plans, so nothing can be said definitively. Secondly, it really depends on the architecture. A Starship type mission, with lots of extra mass, will almost certainly have that ability. A lower mass one won't have a lot of spare capacity. My feeling is most of the experiments that will be done will be on the astronauts ...


4

To question about four antennas of the B-529 system: "Is it possible to understand exactly how this worked?" In fig. 5 is a diagram of the analog formation of the B-529 antenna system of the total difference signals of linear polarization separately for vertical and horizontal polarization. There are two stages of signal addition, and in-phase signals are ...


4

Other answers have already mentioned the types of thrust that a space probe can use to increase/decrease velocity, or to adjust course. I'll mention one other source of velocity that allows space probes to travel at huge speeds of tens of thousands of miles per hour - that is the earth itself. The earth travels around the sun at around 67,000 mph. Anything ...


3

Galileo's troubled high gain antenna was made from "a gold-plated molybdenum wire mesh stretched across 18 graphite-epoxy support ribs". It was a copy of a TDRSS antenna, and after its long storage / trajectory rework / redesign / launch history, failed to deploy fully. This resulted in data transmission rates much, much slower than designed. ...


3

I've paraphrased your question a bit somewhat, into: "What frequency bands and choices of antennas are used for satellites to send data through deep space? For example, if we place a cubesat in an orbit about Io (the moon, Jupiter I), which antenna is best used? What method of transmission is used?". To answer the bulk of your question on frequency: deep ...


3

Some candidates: The Deep Impact spacecraft's impactor, matching Tempel 1's inclination of 10.47 degrees upon collision. The Dawn spacecraft, matching Ceres' inclination of 10.59 degrees. The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft, matching 433 Eros' inclination of 10.83 degrees upon landing. Solar Orbiter is currently beating all of them, at ~14 degrees.


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It's the tiny payload that matters--the rocket is lighter than normal so the same thrust causes it to move faster. This is because it's heading to Mars instead of to orbit, they are trading payload capacity for the speed needed to get there. It's not going to make a big effect in the liftoff speed, though, the weight of the payload is quite small compared ...


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