Around the perimeter of the docking system are a set of 12 spring-loaded latches that lock the two spacecraft together. I believe the latches trip as the retractable probe pulls the two spacecraft together making a tight seal. The bang-bang-bang is the sound of the latches locking into place; I don't know how the timing heard in the movie corresponds to the ...
Earth Orbit Rendezvous is a method for applying brute force. Mars Orbit Rendezvous actually improves efficiency, potentially by a lot.
A Mars sample return (or, for that matter, a straight-up crewed mission to Mars) needs to do the following in order:
Launch from Earth (*)
Get on transfer orbit to Mars (*)
Land on Mars with an ascent vehicle ready
The bolts are part of the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM).
The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a complex collection of
latches, bolts, Ready to Latch (RTL) indicators ... and computers to
control this equipment. This system can be operated by either the
ground or the crew; extravehicular activities (EVAs) (i.e.,
spacewalks) are not required to use this ...
In this question I suggested, that, on the face of it, the SS520-5 sounding rocket could get about 5kg from the surface of Mars onto a trajectory to hit Earth. That rocket (a three stage solid fuel rocket) masses 2.6 tons at liftoff. Let's make the rather large assumption that I haven't missed any problems (someone has already suggested the cold as an issue)....
I don't think there are any more beyond those you listed.
There would be three reasons to perform a docking:
Bringing something back
Assembling a larger structure
As no assembly as taken place beyond Earth orbit so far, 3) is ruled out.
2) I relatively simple to cover, since the only things worth the high cost of recovery is humans ...
There is the joint project of Caltech, University of Surrey and some other companies for development of Autonomously Assembly of a Reconfigurable Space Telescope (AAReST). This project suggests (at the preliminary stage) using a set of about 3U (it much more like 4U) cubesats for orbital mounting of a telescope mirror. The authors use term "docking"...
This answers the question as originally asked:
How many docking operations have taken place beyond Earth orbit?
Zero. All of the examples listed took place in Earth orbit. The moon orbits the Earth, so anything done in its vicinity is still occuring within Earths gravity well.
per Wikipedia, Beyond Earth Orbit (BEO)
require[s] an insertion into a ...
Several political and practical factors are in play. The first is that the ISS is a multinational construction, so whole of craft risks from a high speed docking need to be signed off on by all parties, including those who are using other types of craft to deliver supplies (and therefore have no benefit from the risks being taken). It is perfectly possible ...
@GremlinWrangler talked about the approach aspect, but I'm going to mention the docking aspect.
Docking is fundamentally a controlled, low-speed collision between two large pieces of hardware (ISS comes in at around 1M pounds, or around 450,000 kg). The soft capture system of the docking mechanism has to serve as alignment, capture, and shock absorber for ...
I have not found a reason explicitly stated so some deductive reasoning was used
When the unpiloted Soyuz MS-14 tried to dock to Poisk in August 2019 it failed with an automated abort. Analysis pointed to "a faulty amplifier in the Poisk module’s passive KURS system".
To get MS-14 docked, the crew of Soyuz MS-13 boarded it, undocked it from the ...
The articles also contain planned flights, but of course the times can be changed (because of weather, technical or management issues).
For future ...
The ISS should count partially at least as 4, since Zarya, Zvezda, Pirs, and Poisk all launched a spacecraft and docked to the complex. Maybe even this year Nuaka will launch and make it 5. (It has been delayed since 2011 so I am being a bit sarcastic on this module).
Then we have as many as 6-7 of the following docked at any time in some combination. With ...