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4

According to the paper from the 64rd International Astronautical Congress, Beijing, China The Development of the LOX/LH2 Engine in China; IAC-13, C4.1, 1x18525, the nozzle was welded from spiral-shaped elements. So the spiral pattern is here by design. The spirals are "dump-cooled", an old Rocketdyne idea described in this 1966 NASA Technical Note TN D-...


13

It is indeed difficult to find information on this building. As you can see in the photo below, it was part of a massive test facility at Marshall Space Flight Center: (Overview of MSFC; Mike Jetzer/heroicrelics.org) Some details of how the test stand worked can be found in the nomination form for the US National Register of Historic Places Inventory: ...


19

I can answer the Shuttle part. The test in question was the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT). Here's how the stack looked in the test stand. Five configurations were tested Liftoff First stage (SRBs attached) early, mid, and late 2nd stage For the launch testing, the SRBs stood on hydrodynamic supports which "provided the vertical support ...


1

No. LANTR didn't increase ISP either. Its advantage was that it had increased thrust (relative to both weight and cost). @rokomijic's answer gives the reason why it doesn't: Exhaust velocity ($v$) is proportional to the square root of temperature over particle mass. As: $\frac {1}{2}{\overline {mv^{2}}}=\frac {3}{2}k_{B}T.$ Chemically combining to ...


1

I'm assuming that the goal is to get to orbit with a hybrid between a nuclear turbojet and a nuclear thermal rocket. Be aware that H2O is a significantly heavier molecule than H2, so mixing your hydrogen with oxygen is unlikely to improve V_exh, even if it increases the temperature somewhat. On that basis I'm going to guess the answer is no, and that the ...


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You need a massive facility that can maintain a near vacuum while dealing with the engine exhaust. There are (were) a couple in the US. Plum Brook Station (Part of NASA Glenn) includes the In-Space Propulsion Facility (picture from this informative paper) Arnold Engineering Development Center (run by the DOD) includes the J-6 Large Rocket Motor Test ...


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