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14

Typically, kerosene-LOX engines run fuel-rich, with an oxidizer:fuel mass ratio of about 2.5:1 (as compared to 3.5:1 for complete combustion), leaving significant amounts of unburned carbon soot in the exhaust, which glows yellow as it combusts with oxygen in the atmosphere. The oxidizer:fuel mass ratio for complete combustion of kerosene with hydrogen ...


9

Sutton edition 7 mentions them without too much detail Jet vanes are pairs of heat-resistant, aerodynamic wing-shaped surfaces submerged in the exhaust jet of a fixed rocket nozzle. They were first used about 55 years ago. They cause extra drag (2 to 5% less Is; drag increases with larger vane deflections) and erosion of the vane material. Graphite jet ...


9

I think Wikipedia's Bristol Siddeley Gamma; Advantages of kerosene / peroxide engines can shed some light on the missing light. The combustion formula of kerosene and hydrogen peroxide is $$\mathrm{CH_2+3H_2O_2}\to\mathrm{CO_2+4H_2O},$$ and you can see that the exhaust is mostly water, which results in a clean, transparent flame and increases thrust ...


4

Partial answer for solid motors: Fundamental Aspects of Solid Propellant Rockets (Williams, Barrere, and Huang, ~800 pages, 55 MB) says that if combustion products condense into solids inside the motor, the effect can be detrimental. From Sections 3.2.6 (page numbered 78): Typical results show substantial performance losses for particle diameters above 2 ...


4

Partial answer to get the ball rolling: The RL-10B-2 and RL-10C-2-1 variants of the venerable RL10 LH2/LO2 upper stage engine feature an expandable nozzle with a 280:11 area ratio and an amazing 465.5 Isp. Aerospaceguide.net RL10 article Image source: Aerojet Rocketdyne Image source: Impact of dynamics on the design of the RL10B-2 extendible carbon-carbon ...


3

Since this question was posted, plenty of exhaust plumes have been filmed from the ground giving a nice impression of the long term expansion behavior. So, no, I wouldn't call it bulb shaped, but yes, the exhaust expands in ...


1

i found a clear video of the shock diamond its at around 1:25 it only looks rectangular because they keep cutting of the image this is a good video of the shock diamond forming


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