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66

Oh, I can answer this one. In my structural geology class, we breezed over a few paragraphs on the tectonics of impact craters, but it was in the textbook, and, being space-related, I was intrigued. One note: while most of the papers you'll find are on our own geology, the moon isn't that different compositionally from Earth at all, so I'm assuming the ...


48

Good question. I work on the Curiosity team, and I hear "geology" all the time, but never "areology." Too bad, really, since it's a great word, and I love the R/G/B Mars series.


23

A search on arXiv for "areology" produces no results. A search on ADS produces two results (one of which has the subtitle "The Geological Environment of Mars"). So the term is hardly ever used in titles of scientific publications. From google scholar, there seems to be a few publications about LIBS that use the term. In conclusion, it ...


12

It might help to compare the crater formation to a drop impact: It seems that rock can behave like a viscous mass if you hit it fast enough.


12

It's actually a rebound effect that occurs with an impact forming a large crater. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/explore/shaping_the_planets/impact-cratering/ explains: Central peaks – Peaks formed in the central area of the floor of a large crater. For larger craters (typically a few tens of kilometers in diameter) the excavated crater becomes so ...


11

It does not appear to be a term in common usage in formal scientific settings. Wikipedia suggests that geology is a term generalised to all planets and areology is mainly used in popular media and science fiction. "The geology of Mars is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars. It emphasizes the composition, structure,...


10

We don't really know. A study from 2012 suggests that lichens and cyanobacteria could indeed survive the "obvious" perils of Mars, including radiation, low pressure, and temperatures dropping as low as $-50°\text{C}$. In 2012 the Planetary Society reports a two-stage experiment performed at the German Aerospace Center, in which (1) organisms were ...


9

That's almost certainly ChemCam's laser vaporizing some rock for its spectrometer. You can see similar white spots in this video: The laser fires in short pulses 10 times a second, and there's gaps between the video frames captured by MAHLI. The two are not synchronized and only sometimes align, allowing MAHLI to see the ...


7

From Mars Fact Sheet: hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), argon (Ar), neon (Ne), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe). From Inorganic analysis of martian surface samples at the viking landing sites: (DOI: 10.1126/science.194.4271.1283) silicon (Si), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), strontium (Sr),...


5

Reference [1] describes the finding of jarosite in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars. The NASA Mars rovers include IR spectroscopy in their instrumentation, and that was the method used. The finding of potassium jarosite, $\text{KFe}_3\text{(SO}_4\text{)}_2\text{(OH}\text{)}_6$, is rendered graphically in this figure taken from the reference. The jarosite ...


4

No. This pattern is not directly water/ice-related, it's just dunes - the crater is filled with martian sand and the winds created these ripples. There are a few other examples of similar patterns - here's a small selection: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/the-dunes-in-mars-wirtz-crater https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proctor_(Martian_crater) https://www....


3

Wikipedia claims that selenology, areology exist as words. However, given the scarcity of studies marked planetology (only 37 found in ArXiv at the moment) shows that planetary geology did not differentiate into planetary subfields yet. So Earth geologist will likely understand papers about planetary geology without taking many years of training. The purpose ...


3

Scarp #1: According to this NASA information, this specific scarp is located at 56.6 degrees South latitude, 114.1 degrees East longitude. This picture was taken on May 7, 2011. I went to Google Earth Pro, and inputted the coordinates: -56.6, 114.1 on Mars, and it looks the same. Note the "wedge" shape. Scarp #2: Here's another one of those 8 scarps. At ...


3

As noted in the answer by Michael, a precise chemical composition is not known at this time. We can, however, consider the overall mineral composition on the surface of the Gale Crater. This diagram provided by Curiosity's CheMin analyzer (source) shows that the composition varies with depth inside the crater: The lower part of the crater contains large ...


3

Mudstone, although the precise chemical composition is unknown at this time (at least to the extent I was able to find it out). From the Planetary Society, it is identified as being mudstone. Unfortunately, from wikipedia, it is clear that mudstone is a very general type of mineral and can be composed of many different things, as long as it was once ...


2

It appears the nature of the magnetic anomalies on Mars is due more to due tectonic events after the magnetic dynamo ceased. The southern highlands of Mars display zones of intense crustal magnetization. The magnetic anomalies are weak or absent in the vicinity of large impact basins, the northern plains, and in volcanic regions, indicating that ...


2

The scientific instruments on board will not be able to detect minerals on Callisto. Cameras will record physical features of the surfaces, such as: craters, geological faults, folds and color variations. The color variations will indicate change in mineralogy, but nothing else. Altimeters only measure altitude. The magnetometer will measure variations in ...


2

Yes, of course that has been recorded. MSL's science data is stored at the Planetary Datasystem. ChemCam data are here. The Analyst's notebook shows the data on a map.


2

The formation of badlands is a result of two processes: deposition and erosion. Part of HiRISE PSP_001902_1890, NASA/JPL/University of Arizona The image above shows stair-stepped hills on the floor of a crater named Sera in Arabia Terra. Surely these hills are eroded layered sediments, so this region could be named "badlands". Although some of ...


2

What I should have been looking at is the Geoid of Mars & the depth from it to the mantle The thickness of the crust varies between 50 km & 22 km due to the Geography & features (rock layers) above the Geoid while the distance from it to the mantle should be reasonably uniform. I presume the putative Geoid of Mars is the altitude used for ...


1

Like the answer from @Jack already noted, the confusion is indeed from comparing depth vs elevation. What i really wanted to know was the depth below "sea level". With Mars Trek's "Calculate Elevation Profile" tool you can find that the floor of Mojave crater is about 5.1 km below "sea level", 600 meters lower than Gale crater's ! Together with Nicholson ...


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