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66

Oh, I can answer this one. In my structural geology class, we breezed over a few paragraphs on the tectonics of impact craters, but it was in the textbook, and, being space-related, I was intrigued. One note: while most of the papers you'll find are on our own geology, the moon isn't that different compositionally from Earth at all, so I'm assuming the ...


48

Good question. I work on the Curiosity team, and I hear "geology" all the time, but never "areology." Too bad, really, since it's a great word, and I love the R/G/B Mars series.


28

We turn to Mars, which we have studied for decades now. And we do see plenty of mineral diversity on the surface of the Red Planet, it's not just rust by any means. Curiosity's CheMin analyzer has studied the surface mineral composition of the Gale Crater. Quoting from this answer: This diagram provided by Curiosity's CheMin analyzer (source) shows that ...


23

A search on arXiv for "areology" produces no results. A search on ADS produces two results (one of which has the subtitle "The Geological Environment of Mars"). So the term is hardly ever used in titles of scientific publications. From google scholar, there seems to be a few publications about LIBS that use the term. In conclusion, it ...


17

They do not! The reasons for this are simple: minerals are semi-stable configurations of elements formed in certain pressure-temperature-chemical conditions. A planet in the possession of active plate tectonics will also be in the possession of more extreme pressures and temperatures (not to mention introduces chemicals to such conditions that would not ...


12

It's actually a rebound effect that occurs with an impact forming a large crater. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/explore/shaping_the_planets/impact-cratering/ explains: Central peaks – Peaks formed in the central area of the floor of a large crater. For larger craters (typically a few tens of kilometers in diameter) the excavated crater becomes so ...


12

It might help to compare the crater formation to a drop impact: It seems that rock can behave like a viscous mass if you hit it fast enough.


11

It does not appear to be a term in common usage in formal scientific settings. Wikipedia suggests that geology is a term generalised to all planets and areology is mainly used in popular media and science fiction. "The geology of Mars is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars. It emphasizes the composition, structure,...


9

These can be interpreted as desiccation cracks, filled with calcium- and/or magnesium sulfate (Ca-/Mg-SO4, seen as white material). Methods used, for brevity citing from the below pop science link: "... The team took a close physical and chemical look at those polygons using Curiosity's Mastcam, Mars Hand Lens Imager, ChemCam Laser Induced Breakdown ...


9

TL, DR: Olivine is a specific type of mafic or ultra-mafic mineral that is specifically identified in some parts of the overall mafic floor of the crater. The olivine is seen in specific areas of which the indicated "olivine-bearing floor" is most prominent. Mafic: More than just olivine In mineralogical terms, "mafic" is a more ...


8

That's what I found so far. In Abdrahimov, Basilevsky [2002] Venera photos are used for geological context interpretation comparing with orbital radar data. quotes: The photogeologic analysis shows that the material of plains with wrinkle ridges (Pwr) dominates the Venera-9 landing-site ellipse (it occupies ~60% of the area of the ellipse). The material of ...


7

One of those tools is this calculator on the NASA website. Let's see what it gives us here: Olympus Mons is at 18.65° N, 226.2° E The westernmost point of the Valles Marineris is Noctis Labyrinthus, which is at 7° S, 102.2° W According to the calculator, the distance is 2387.8 km. (Note that in order for the lines on the map to match, you need to enter ...


5

We have a little bit of information about the Earth Moon and the planet Mars and very little bit about Venus, but nothing like the wealth of information about the Earth's minerals, more than 5000 known minerals. There may be unknown minerals very deep in the oceans or deeper than the deepest bore holes. We may suspect the gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune ...


3

Scarp #1: According to this NASA information, this specific scarp is located at 56.6 degrees South latitude, 114.1 degrees East longitude. This picture was taken on May 7, 2011. I went to Google Earth Pro, and inputted the coordinates: -56.6, 114.1 on Mars, and it looks the same. Note the "wedge" shape. Scarp #2: Here's another one of those 8 scarps. At ...


3

The d/D ratio of Martian craters vary from 0.1 to 0.4 with mean value of 0.23. The largest crater with diameter 33m has d/D ratio of 0.2 but smaller craters have higher d/D value. One crater has a surprisingly high d/D value: 0.5. A plot of d/D ratio vs diameter is drawn showing the variation in the values: Shallower craters have d/D values of more than 0.3 ...


3

Wikipedia claims that selenology, areology exist as words. However, given the scarcity of studies marked planetology (only 37 found in ArXiv at the moment) shows that planetary geology did not differentiate into planetary subfields yet. So Earth geologist will likely understand papers about planetary geology without taking many years of training. The purpose ...


2

There's some ambiguity about whether Noctis Labyrinthus is part of Valles Marineris. According to Wikipedia it is part of the Valles Marineris system, but it also says that Noctis Labyrinthus is a region between Valles Marineris and the Tharsis upland. Anyway, Mars Trek is an excellent tool to determine distances and elevations on Mars. Press the "Skip ...


2

It appears the nature of the magnetic anomalies on Mars is due more to due tectonic events after the magnetic dynamo ceased. The southern highlands of Mars display zones of intense crustal magnetization. The magnetic anomalies are weak or absent in the vicinity of large impact basins, the northern plains, and in volcanic regions, indicating that ...


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