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4

the other posters are correct - true Martian soil contains perchlorates, high levels of iron, and can be highly toxic. What you want to look for is called "Mars Regolith Stimulant". There are a few websites that have recipes. https://reprage.com/post/home-made-simulant-mars-dirt The five most abundant ingredients, account for almost 90% of the dirt ...


3

As noted in the answer by Michael, a precise chemical composition is not known at this time. We can, however, consider the overall mineral composition on the surface of the Gale Crater. This diagram provided by Curiosity's CheMin analyzer (source) shows that the composition varies with depth inside the crater: The lower part of the crater contains large ...


3

Mudstone, although the precise chemical composition is unknown at this time (at least to the extent I was able to find it out). From the Planetary Society, it is identified as being mudstone. Unfortunately, from wikipedia, it is clear that mudstone is a very general type of mineral and can be composed of many different things, as long as it was once ...


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