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Laser telemetry, stellar navigation from a landed telescope


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...for the purpose of vertical landing especially on other planets, what is the alternative to GPS navigation? Terrain recognition and imaging, and if there's a landing pad, some radio and optical beacons and possibly even a big "X" or other reflective (optical) or topographic (radar) marker if somebody with a company with an "X" in the ...


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There are a couple of questions here, I will try to answer them all. Q1: Is GPS only valid below GEO orbits? A1: For the most part yes, because GPS satellites transmission are pointed at earth. (Minor Technical correction: GPS satellites are not in fact in Geosynchronous orbits. They are in MEO orbits which are only half way to GEO by altitude) However the ...


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So, you have basically 2 questions: 1.) vertical landing ... 2.) Navigation outside of earths shere of influence Let us start with 1.) : Typical extra-terrestial landers are equipt with radar altimeter: ExoMars 2016 A Doppler radar altimeter on the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli Entry, descent, and landing Demonstrator Module... Mars Pathfinder The lander's [....


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It uses GPS and, as backup, an intertial navigation system. The two have always provided virtually identical navigation data. A SpaceX employee said that in an interview.


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