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Has there ever been an attempt or serious consideration for spacecraft to land on Mars without an ablative-type heat shield?

All successful and attempted landings on Mars to date have used ablative heat shields. NASA shields have all been variants of phenolic impregnated carbon, sometimes with and oxide coating. The ESA ...
Galerita's user avatar
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2 votes

How many heat shield tiles are installed on Starship and what is their total volume roughly?

At 1:24:00 in SpaceX's IFT3 broadcast, Kate says that there are 18,000 heat shield tiles on Starship. Each hexagonal tile is 9.5" (0.2413m) across the short diagonal. The area of the hexagonal ...
phil1008's user avatar
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