35

Soyuz the booster and Soyuz the person carrying spacecraft are different. Soyuz the booster is based on the original R-7 ICBM and has seen a series of upgrades. Sometimes to engines, sometimes to computer systems, sometimes to components. I suspect you are reacting to an article like this one at SpaceflightNow.com which is actually a pretty good article. ...


19

Man rating seems like an obvious thing. Safe enough for manned flight. But in reality, there really was/is no standard for it. Some things are generic. Sufficient (Usually triple) redundancy in flight computers/controls. SpaceX has cited building to 1.4X structural margins expected, instead of 1.25. (This is a hard one to retrofit in after the fact). ...


19

While the launch escape system (LES) is important for getting the crew away on ascent there are other thing required for human-rating a craft/launch system (and you do need to pay attention to the entire system and mission, not just the rocket during ascent). Specifically for Atlas V they needed to: space.com upgrade the emergency detection system (your ...


18

As I am not privy to the contractual interactions between NASA and SpaceX, I cannot say with an absolute certainty that NASA and SpaceX had astronauts, pilots, etc. evaluate the vehicle beforehand with multiple simulators and used the Cooper-Harper rating scale to evaluate the quality of the human-machine interface and the controllability of the vehicle. On ...


17

The Apollo project was driven by Kennedy's "end of the decade" timeline; time was of the essence. Both time and budget pressure forced the program to take risks that they might not have in an ideal situation. Flying live crews on Apollos 7 and 8 was part of that risk. Any of these failures, had they occurred on a manned mission, would have required an ...


11

Since there have been no answers in over a week, I'll venture a partial answer. There are of course several challenges. Among them in no particular order: Crew selection and training Putting together, evaluating, and training the crew would be the first challenge. They need to train together on accurate replicas of the systems to be used in the future. Just ...


9

Space.com answered this very question: The emergency detection system needs to be finished, for example. And a human-rated Atlas 5 will use a two-engine Centaur upper stage rather than the single-engine version currently in use, Patton said, so some more tweaks will be needed to accommodate the change. There's a good list of other things, but the bottom ...


8

At the moment, the only man-rated vehicle, in the sense you mean, is Soyuz. However, all the visiting vehicles that dock to the station have to be man-rated in a sense, since they become station extensions. Of the other currently flying vehicles, since only Dragon (cargo) can reenter without burning up (HTV, ATV, Progress, Cygnus all destruct on reentry) ...


8

Liquid oxygen mixed with carbon powder has been used as an explosive for mining, see 1, 2. But there has been an explosion in a helium purifier 3. The use for mining required safe explosives, the rate of spontaneus self-ignitions should be very, very low. The charges should explode only when triggered by a detonator, but not when handling them or by static ...


7

Many entries in this 1957-2015 Catalogue of Launch Vehicle Failures mention stage numbers. By my tally, the blame for launch failure goes to the first stage 42 times; the second, 60; the third, 36. If you restrict the reasons for failure to those that might apply to Falcon 9 (one entry is a Falcon 9, btw), or if you discriminate between explosions and less ...


6

Most showstoppers come from the fact that the Saturn/Apollo programs are not active, and have not been for a long time. Human rating primarily applies to the design process. The Saturn/Apollo were not under these requirements, and is thus not designed in a fashion compatible with it. There are no longer any people that are responsible for the various ...


6

In a sense SpaceX did just that: they started with a cargo-only rocket and gradually improved it with their two goals of reusability and human-rating in mind. This plan meant the rocket was already generating revenue while the human-rating was underway. And building the cargo-only version first gave the team valuable experience that now helps reduce the ...


5

Orion has already had a pad abort test back when it was part of the Constellation program, in 2010. Pad Abort 1 has its own Wikipedia entry, strangely enough. Pad Abort 1 test was a test of the tractor-style launch abort system (which pulls the capsule with a small rocket mounted on top, a la Apollo). There was a proposed alternate launch abort system, ...


5

For Ariane 5, the reason is simple that ESA don't have a sovereign manned program. The rocket was initially planned to be human rated. It has been be quoted as one of the reason why the rocket is so expensive, despite the requirement being dropped.


5

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISRO_Orbital_Vehicle: The Indian manned spacecraft temporarily named Orbital Vehicle is intended to be the basis of the indigenous Indian human spaceflight program. The capsule will be designed to carry three people, and a planned upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capability. In its maiden manned ...


5

Soyuz capsule and Progress cargo ship will be launched over Soyuz FG and Soyuz 2.1a boosters - they all from the same R-7 boosters family Soyuz FG has minor changes of mixing heads comparable to the retired Soyuz-U and Soyuz 2.1a has digital control system and another third stage


5

At this point the only company actively working (at least publicly) on creating a "spaceplane" for human spaceflight is Virgin Galactic (Plane actually made by Scaled Composites). Their SpaceshipTwo is only suborbital, however. Other companies have spaceplanes in their long term plans - but usually as a goal, rather than a funded strategic path. For ...


4

Human certification has little to do with a concept and more to do with the Factor of Safety in mission-critical design aspects. SRBs are very reliable and predictable in ignition and burn (if you look at their history, more so than very-complicated liquid-fueled engines), but you have seen some GEM boosters fail in the past because their factors of safety ...


4

Sorry, I can't truly answer the main question, as I don't have access to that information. This is more of a general answer to OP's statement: you can't reliably tell whether your input has been registered or not. With a physical button, you always know if you pressed it or not. With a touchscreen, it can be more ambiguous. In fact, the same can be true of ...


4

When this kind of compatibility is required, they mostly mean mechanically, vibrations and things like that. The software isn't written, nor the conops, and other tests haven't likely been done. In theory, however, this allows one to, in the event of a major issue, launch on another rocket, with some work. I strongly suspect Crew Dragon is rated for at least ...


4

The question assumes there is a concept of "Continuous Delivery" in space flight software. There is not. The required product assurance processes do not allow it. I'll consider ECSS standards here, as those are what I have experience with. Here you can find an introduction on the applicable software standards. ECSS defines 4 criticality levels of space ...


3

You are using web site development terms. While some of those concepts do indeed apply to the development flight software, some do not, and some are so far off as to make "completely off base" a minor criticism. In this post I'll describe some of things that can be done to test whether the software running on a spacecraft is doing what it is ...


3

While Mike's answer is very well researched and written. I disagree with its challenges (though I don't disagree with his conclusions). The biggest challenges that SpaceX will need to solve in my opinion are. 1. Re-entry heat shielding and Earth landings. It is still working on mastering the landing flip without losing fuel flow. But it also has to show that ...


2

As for now (April of 2016) the plans are to build the first ship in 2019, launch in 2021. However, the country's economy is declining with negative forecast, so I highly doubt anything will be launched before 2026.


2

Compliance is mandatory! Human Rating Requirements for Space Systems It's long, even with the rationale scraped out, but here you go. 3.2 System Safety Requirements 3.2.1 The space system shall provide the capability to sustain a safe, habitable environment for the crew (Requirement 58503). 3.2.2 The space system shall meet probabilistic safety criteria ...


2

what of the original purpose of EM-1 would be served...? It is hard to tell from the NASA administrator's comments in Ars Technica's Here’s why NASA’s administrator made such a bold move Wednesday: "SLS is struggling to meet its schedule," Bridenstine replied to Wicker's question. "We are now understanding better how difficult this project ...


2

The Indian Human Space Flight Programme "Gaganyaan" (Sanskrit: गगनयान, "Sky Vehicle") Number of Crew member: Gaganyaan is a fully autonomous 3.7-tonne (8,200 lb) spacecraft designed to carry a 3-member crew to orbit and safely return to the Earth. Mission details: Mission duration of up to seven days. ISRO is yet to give any further comprehensive report ...


2

The first stage filters out a lot of the mistakes. Pretty much the entire stack is tested to some extent during the first stage. This includes the hardware being subject to vibration and force as well as software for guidance etc. They are also subject to the most environmental factors, which are harder to predict and test than isolated hardware. They are ...


1

Sadly, the point may just be to kick the SLS folks in the butt to be on time and on budget for once, that Senate support of their laziness may be blocked by the administration. Doing the LEO assembly approach has almost too many problems. The most glaring: the SLS mission profile has the core booster imparting enough speed and altitude for the Delta Interim ...


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