The FAA is not responsible for every US vehicle as that other answer alluded to.
FAA licensing covers pilots, commercial aircraft, aircraft operators, and commercial spacecraft Earth launches and entries. In layman terms, it does not cover spacecraft operations beyond the atmospheric of Earth.
Government licensing is not required for government projects ...
As of today, the debris shield has been dropped. The "tests" discussed in the article are electrical, computer, and sensor tests. Nothing mechanical (other than dropping the shield) has been done yet; the helicopter is still attached to the bottom of the rover.
The official NASA article dated today explains that the rover is now on its way to a ...
Why didn't Ingenuity (helicopter) deploy immediately right after rover landing?
For many reasons. Number one is that helicopter is an experimental (i.e., not mission-critical) item. Mission-critical aspects took a much higher priority.
Another reason is that Ingenuity deployment requires the Perseverance to move to a flat spot, drop the helicopter from its ...
According to the FAA itself, licensing is for private individuals and companies, and applies only to the launch and re-entry parts of the flight:
An FAA license is required for any launch or reentry, or the operation of any launch or reentry site, by U.S. citizens anywhere in the world, or by any individual or entity within the United States.
But no FAA ...
From multiple sites, but for the following quote, ScienceMag.org references a laser altimeter: (emphasis mine)
The data began to trickle in at 6:40 a.m. ET, relayed by the
Perseverance rover to orbiters above and back to Earth. Cheers erupted
12 minutes later among Ingenuity’s small team of engineers and
scientists when confirmation of a successful flight ...
So How did ingenuity helicopter clear tests even without being deployed on Mars?
The linked article claims that Ingenuity has "cleared multiple system checks". By way of analogy, human pilots of aircraft on Earth perform or monitor all kinds of systems checks on the planes before the pilots even think of starting an aircraft's engines. Then they ...
In some sense, it already is.
Ingenuity was designed for 5 short test hops during the first 30 days. Pretty much every flight since then was higher, farther, and longer than originally designed and planned, in addition to the helicopter only being planned to operate for 5 flights and only for 30 days.
When the helicopter is done being "useful"
Hackaday has a well-written article describing nicely the control system for Ingenuity.
Another way in which Ingenuity differs from terrestrial multicopters
is in the flight control systems. Where most quads only have
fixed-pitch rotor blades and use differential motor speed to achieve
pitch, yaw, and roll control, Ingenuity uses a pair of swashplates to
Ingenuity is a low cost technology demonstrator. As a technology demonstrator, NASA and JPL cut lots of corners to keep the cost low (low by NASA standards, only \$80 million US compared to the \$2.2 billion cost for the rover). Ingenuity was planned to make just five flights during the first few months of the mission. If it had fallen short of this goal of ...
As @fred_dot_u's answer shows from a blog post, the control mechanism is two swashplates.
The manufacturer of the six motors that control the swashplates confirms that:
Six DCX precision micro motors with a diameter of 10 millimeters are responsible for moving the swashplate and hence adjusting the inclination of the rotor blades - i.e. for controlling the ...
There was a fluid loop that transferred heat from the RTG to cruise stage components, as shown in these diagrams.
Source: Thermal Control of MSL Rover 'Curiousity" Using an Active Fluid Loop
The separation of the thermal control system is described in this paper thusly:
The first major thermal event triggered by the EDL sequence was venting of the ...
First of all, according to Fig. 2 from Multi-model Meteorological and Aeolian Predictions for Mars 2020 and the Jezero Crater Region the nighttime surface and atmospheric temperatures for Ingenuity will not drop below minus 90 degrees Celsius.
Also,this paper shows that Ingenuity has been tested in thermal vacuum at minus 90 degrees Celsius for 4 hours and ...
The wind on Mars simply isn't that powerful. For comparison, the blades, which are rather large, are moving at the tips around 0.7 mach. It would take wind speeds on that order to cause it to have any measureable effects, and the winds aren't anywhere near that strong on Mars.
The answer is easy, it was given in your link to the NASA website:
When we designed and tested Ingenuity on Earth, we expected
Ingenuity’s five-flight mission to be completed within the first few
months after Perseverance’s landing in February 2021. We therefore
prepared for flights at atmospheric densities between 0.0145 and
0.0185 kg/m3, which is ...
First of all, Ingenuity has to survive the nights until it can be properly deployed on the surface, although it has power from Perseverance to do so. This probably isn't a significant issue, it has a protected case to allow it to survive EDL which will be ditched prior to deployment. It should be fine there for a while.
Then it has to be deployed, and ...
See lower centre of pic, cylindrical thing is umbilical cutter, next to that is grey blocky thing being the point of attachment of support cable with cutter in block, next to that is a bunch of severed cables and pipes/tubes:
original, click for larger
Perseverance has been making pressure measurements daily it seems for a while:
750 Pa / 101325 Pa = ~0.007 atm
I believe most surface probes include an 'weather' station to monitor temperatures and pressures for science and engineering purposes.
As for the gravity part of your question, gravitational anomalies are ...
It doesn't "know" where it is. It instead estimates where it is, with the quality of the estimation degrading with time. It is using a 21st century equivalent of the "dead reckoning" techniques that enabled the Age Of Sail. (In other words, it's using a Kalman filter that lacks position and attitude updates.)
From How NASA Designed a ...
It yaws (rotates about a vertical axis) using differential angles of attack.
I found the answer by looking at the paper linked to in ymb1's answer. Thanks to ymb1 for pointing me in the right direction! (No pun intended.)
That paper says:
Yaw (heading) is controlled approximately by antisymmetric collective, which is defined as one-half the difference ...
How would the winds of the Martian storms affect the Mars Helicopter, especially while resting on the ground?
Martian dust storms can most definitely vary in severity, however, it is very unlikely that a dust storm grows into a global dust storm as those tend to happen on average every 5.5 earth years. But you are right that they can reach velocities of 26 ...
I believe I got the answer.
Let's check this explanation:
it's unintentional and an artifact of how the sensor works. Basically it still works as a much lower performance image sensor after the shutter is closed but before the stored pixel data is scanned out. Essentially photoelectrons can still get into the storage node.