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The Space Shuttle used liquid hydrogen, contained in the external tank along with liquid oxygen. While the Falcon rockets do use liquid oxygen, they do not use liquid hydrogen. Keeping the liquid hydrogen cool was the primary driver for the foam. The Orbiter was mounted alongside and below the the top of the external tank. The Falcon payload is mounted at ...


25

Reaction control system jet interactions with a vehicle's aerodynamic flowfield can be counterintuitive. Here's a capsule simulation results graphic showing similar spreading effects below the jet as well as laterally (from the first link below). This paper states in reference to Apollo: Interference heating in the case of the yaw and roll jets covered ...


18

The problem is not the foam breaking off per se, but the fact that the orbiter was below the fuel tank and got hit by the falling foam. The Dragon capsule is on top of the stack, it can't be hit by a piece of foam that comes off the booster.


16

The orbiters were not allowed to fly through precipitation on landing for the following reasons: The orbiter is not to encounter precipitation on any approach due to decreased visibility, damage to the TPS, and the potential for triggered lightning. Undesirable aspects of thunderstorms include rain (TPS, structure), hail (TPS, structure, control), severe ...


14

tl;dr - the parts at the rear of ET-94 where the foam was removed were painted orange for display. The foam was not dyed but started out a light cream color. It slowly turned orange when exposed to light. Here is a picture of foam that was trimmed off during the stringer crack problem on STS-133. You can see the internal foam is lighter, and the metal is ...


13

At least for the Shuttle ET: The tank’s foam is a polyurethane-type foam composed of five primary ingredients: polymeric isocyanate, a flame retardant, a surfactant, a blowing agent, and a catalyst. A surfactant controls the surface tension of a liquid and thus cell formation. The blowing agent, HCFC 141b, creates the foam’s cellular structure ...


12

Do all chemically-fueled rockets need foam insulation? Not all, but some do. Generally the small subset of ones that utilize hydrogen fuel. The hydrogen-fueled Delta IV uses essentially the same insulating foam as shuttle did. Photo from clickorlando.com The hydrogen-fueled SLS uses a similar foam. Photo credit NASA This question Insulation on rockets--...


5

Why did Orbex choose to use propane in combination with liquid oxygen, instead of for example methane, which boiling point is very close to oxygen's boiling point, allowing use of very thin insulation or even only structural skin? Methane's freezing point, 90.7K, is practically the same as oxygen's boiling point 90.2K. Liquid oxygen could easily freeze ...


5

STS-70 is the only case of woodpecker damage I know of. If you search the Space Shuttle Missions Summary document for "woodpecker", that is the only hit. Image Source Incidentally, they were Northern Flickers, nice birds. Image Source


4

The NASA document "Liquid Rocket Lines, Bellows, Flexible Hoses, and Filters" contains an extensive discussion of propellant line insulation in Chapter 2.1.5.4 Insulation. Quick summary: Many types are used, but vacuum-jacketed hard lines with flexible joints were used extensively in the Saturn and Shuttle propulsion systems to maintain propellant quality. ...


3

Only a partial answer about the medium gray foils. The thermal blanket consists of multiple-layered (at least 25 layers) of aluminized sheet (mylar or H-film). Each layer is only 0.00015 inch thick and is coated on one side with a microinch thickness of aluminum. To make an even more effective insulation, the polymide sheets are hand ...


3

Yes, at least once, for the Rosetta launch. The damage was discovered before the launch: A fallen chunk of foam insulation from the rocket’s fuel tank scuppered the latest launch attempt. During a final inspection of the Ariane-5 launch rocket at 0100 GMT on Friday, a 10 by 15 centimetre chunk of foam was found on the movable launch “table” that supports ...


3

The forums at nasaspaceflight.com have some stills captured from the NASA broadcast of the EVA. The cut and peeled back insulation is shown well in this shot. A higher-resolution version of this image (and many others from the EVA) can be seen in the thread at the NasaSpaceflight Forums


3

A anti-meteorite screens (about a millimeter thick) https://life.ru/t/наука/1155250/samaia_vazhnaia_ekspieditsiia_chiem_zaimutsia_kosmonavty_na_mks There are anti-meteorite screens deployed on the casing of the modules of the ISS. They look like a blanket on the station body and are made of highly durable composite materials. https://vz.ru/society/2018/8/31/...


2

I don't have a source sorry, but I suspect the reason for having insulation is to prevent formation of liquid oxygen on the out side of hydrogen tanks. Hydrogen is so cold that it can cause the Oxygen (and Nitrogen) in the the air to condense. Liquid Oxygen just dribbling onto the launch pad and rocket would be a bad thing. Steel burns in liquid oxygen. ...


2

Vacuum-jacketed lines were used for both LOX and LH2 plumbing in the aft boattail of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. See also Insulation used in the plumbing line of the actual rockets


2

The ablator is more to protect the structure itself than the propellant quality/boil-off. Ablator was used in certain areas of the shuttle External Tank for this reason. This quote from "A Technical History of the External Tank" (not online) describes the initial design which didn't include the complete covering of the tank with the classic orange foam. ...


1

I asked, and Tory actually answered April 6, but Twitter didn't send notices, I wasn't paying close attention, and I wasn't really sure how it worked. Anyway, I found it today, and I don't think he really answered the specific question, but this is what he said. Tory Bruno Verified account @torybruno Apr 6 Replying to @GregHan21100390 Any insulation is ...


1

My guess is that you don't have to insulate the lines, because the rate at which you charge and discharge your tanks is high enough that you won't gain enough heat to vaporize your Lox. If your mass flow rate was really low,maybe you would have to consider the heat loss while in transit from tank to injector.


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