97

The border between India and Pakistan is one of the most heavily guarded and well-lit borders in the world, so much so that it can be seen from space at night. It covers an immense distance from the Arabian Sea to the Himalayan foothills. Here is how it looks from ISS. India-Pakistan Border at Night from NASA Earth Observatory The winding border between ...


21

The EU and ESA are not related. They have different member states, where neither is a subset of the other. The only potential issue is simply economic. If the British exit from the EU results in a depressed UK economy, then they may elect to participate less in ESA.


17

Another border which is visible due to the lack of light is the Haitian border with the Dominican Republic: The area highlighted on the left is Haiti, of which only Port Au Prince can be seen at night. The bright island on the right is Puerto Rico.


15

You did not specify if you are thinking of any border or only an anthropogenic one. Anthropogenic (they will likely be visible due to different levels of economic development): Egypt and Israel (different level of development visible on both sides) Haiti and Dominican Republic (less vegetation in Haiti) Natural ones (rivers and mountain ranges can be seen ...


13

While LED lighting is taking over (and is likely CW), plenty of outdoor street lights in cities and highways still use high pressure mercury and sodium discharge lamps running on mains AC voltage. They don't rectify and so will produce two pulses per cycle of AC. Therefore any technique that can chop up time, a rolling shutter effect or simple aliasing in ...


12

Most of the answers were concerning night time pictures. Let me add some nice example of day time pictures, of Israel. Plenty of grazing animals on the Egyptian side of the border, but none on the Israeli side. Gaza is distinct from both, evident by the densely populated areas and small subdivisions of farms. Compare to the larger farms in Israel, and no ...


10

The main people who oversee this (at least in the US) is the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), From Wikipedia: The purpose of the JSpOC is to provide a focal point for the operational employment of worldwide joint space forces and enable the Commander of JFCC SPACE (CDR JFCC SPACE) to integrate space power into global military operations. The JSpOC ...


10

Essentially each country who has agreed to send such spacecraft wants to build their own spacecraft. This is most noted in US/ Russian, but is to a lesser extend to European/ Japanese partners. Breaking them down by country, we have the following: United States Shuttle Cygnus Dragon Russia Progress Soyuz ESA ATV Japan HTV Okay, so there are 4 ...


9

The effect should be small, but possibly non-zero. There currently exists growing cooperation between EU and ESA. Within the EU-ESA membership agreement, one of the noted obstacles is the membership asymmetry: 2.2. Membership asymmetry At present, 17 EU Member States are Members of ESA. ESA's members include Norway and Switzerland, which are ...


9

tl;dr: Do owners of reentering spacecraft notify the countries' whose airspace they are likely to violate and seek permission? No, there is no requirement for notification, and in most instances there is no notification. There are three main guiding principles of international space law that could apply. The Outer Space Treaty has a vague reference ...


9

The Americans did worry about the possibility of Soviet interference. The navigation computer was could be updated from the ground, but this was only done after confirmation via a voice channel: Apollo’s design did reflect some early concern about possible Russian sabotage. For example, in the air-ground conversations you’d often hear the ground ask the ...


8

A part of the border between Austria, Switzerland and Germany may be seen from orbit. For the biggest part of the Lake Constance, the Upper Lake, the location of the borders within the water is not defined. Therefore the lake itself is the border, a very wide one, easily to be seen from orbit at day and night. Within a smaller part, the Lower Lake, the ...


7

Belgium, sort of: Belgium has road lighting on almost all of its roads. The neighboring countries don't. The southern Netherlands, the Ruhrgebiet and the Lille area are densely populated so the distinction is less clear here.


7

The outline of Lesotho can be seen by the distinct mountain texture (80% of the country being above 1800 m) setting it apart from the surrounding South Africa.


7

The UK did take some advantage of American components, the engine programme for Blue Streak started with licensed American designs that were progressively replaced with indigenous designs. Black Arrow was a purely British development. British companies had some rocket experience because in the 1950s there were several plans (Saunders-Roe SR.53 and SR.177, ...


6

I think that in the American program NASA the area around the launch site and the build-up areas are very secured areas and no access is permitted. Any intrusion into these areas is dealt with as trespassing on government property. I again called my retired NASA friend and he did speak of a few labor union strikes and he affirmed the above gentleman's ...


6

This list shows all the countries which have, to date, launched satellites - a total of 88. Note that some of these countries no longer exist as a single country (eg. Czechoslovakia), have changed (Soviet Union), are dependencies (Jersey) or are somewhat controversial (Asgardia). Only 12 countries have natively developed their own launch systems, so all the ...


5

Looking at this high resolution image of the Earth at night, here are a few borders I could find. US/ Mexico can be partially seen, particularly in the Western US. Guatamala and its southern neighbors of Honduras/ El Salvador India/ Pakistan is VERY noticeable. North/ South Korea is also VERY obvious. Italy seems pretty obvious, but it is probably ...


5

The International Space Station, by far. The mass of the station varies with time, but it's around 420 tons It was constructed over the course of about 13 years, although it is still being tweaked today.


5

Arianne is good at putting 9 tonne satellites into Geosynchronous orbit or 20 tonnes into LEO. Putting one or two half tonne satellites into 500km orbits would be ridiculously wasteful, and consequentially expensive. At ArianneSpace, neither the Vega or Soyuz were in service at the time. Given that payload owners tend to have unrestricted access to the ...


5

Three more missions were planned but canceled to save some money. The lost and forgotten missions 18, 19 and 20. To get moon dust and rocks samples from more than one spot only. To get some samples of hardware from the Surveyor 3 lander during Apollo 12. To place more than one lunar seismometer. To place more than one lunar ranging retro reflector. To have ...


4

On paper it should make no difference given that there are many non EU members contributing to the ESA budget. Reality, however, is often very different than paper. The politics of the current situation are difficult to predict. Certainly, the national governments of France, Germany and Italy will find it politically impossible to support any major ...


4

Diversity is good, as recent history has shown. With the failure of Cygnus, Progress, and Dragon, there is still an HTV due to launch with cargo. There is national prestige involved, and while manned spaceflight is very hard and expensive, cargo is significantly easier and cheaper. The ISS consortium agreement does a lot of horse trading and barter for ...


4

Ballistic missiles are usually divided into groups based on range. These groups were originally defined by the US military. Intercontinental (ICBM), with a range of more than 5500 km, i.e. able to reach the US from Russia v.v. Intermediate-range (IRBM), with a range of 3,000–5,500 km. Able to reach Moscow from the UK. Still a strategic asset. Medium and ...


4

Since we don't have any moonbases yet, this is going to be difficult to answer. So the following will guesswork with a few bits of data in between. The only large-scale construction we've built in space is the ISS. Building the ISS cost on the order of $100 billion. The ISS can house about 10 people, which is reasonable for a scientific outpost, but ...


4

The Space Liability Convention of the Outer Space Treaty holds that whichever state controls the territory a spacecraft/object is launched from is responsible for any damages it causes. India is a signatory of the treaty, so if the debris field results in damage to the ISS, the appropriate states (depending on what specifically was damaged) can file for ...


3

From Moon Base Would Be Cheap with Help from Private Industry: Report The dream of sending humans back to the moon could become a reality for the relatively low price of \$10 billion — only about 10 percent of one previous cost estimate — as long as NASA is willing to buy from private spaceflight companies, a new report shows. In 2005, NASA ...


3

There are two different issues here- what time zone do the people in space use and what time zone the mission control center uses. The crew uses the elapsed time. To quote Paul Lockhart's answer to a similar question, ....On the shuttle we use mission elapsed time. This is kept by the computers as soon as launch is initiated. And once we are on orbit, ...


3

ESA and Japan are partners in the ISS venture. As such, they are supposed to contribute to the operating cost of the station. They have chosen to do this in the form of resupply flights. This gave them the opportunity to bolster their space industry by developing new technology (and by producing a pile of hardware). It also meant they could spend the several ...


3

Historically, Japan has been involved in international space collaboration. They built the Kibo module on the ISS as well as lots of the surrounding science hardware, and a few Japanese astronauts have done expeditions to the Station. There are not many things better than an international treaty to make sure policy survives through multiple administrations. ...


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