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0

The crew of the nonfunctional spacecraft would have to wait without an escape capability until a Soyuz replacement or a Shuttle arrives (either of which could take days to months depending on timing). (Nowadays read Crew Dragon for Shuttle) Final Report of the ISS Independent Safety Task Force p.52


4

By design that will never happen. There are always enough return seats for the crew. This is exactly why the whole crew of one of the visiting vehicles gets in it whenever it undocks, even when it is only being moved from one docking port of the station to another the crews retreat to their vehicles in fire / leak / toxic atmosphere emergencies the crews ...


2

As you used the ISS as an example, one may look up what kind of pump power is required for all of that: https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/473486main_iss_atcs_overview.pdf 2x PFCS ("Pump Flow Control Subassemblies"), each at 275W. What costs energy in a cooling system is moving fluid around. In the case of the ISS, it's around 7.5tons per hour. (But if you ...


-1

It takes no energy to dissipate heat into space via black body radiation, which is what I assume you're talking about. A "heat pump" can also be a wide range of things, and the general category doesn't have any math that would be very useful to you. I recommend an edit for clarification, so your question can be answered better than a simple, "...


0

While this scenario isn't exactly what you're asking for, I still think it's worth it to post it as an answer. The photograph below is of STS-74 when it was docked with Mir. Instead of a photographer going out of their own way and entering another spacecraft to take a photograph, astronauts went out of their way into another spacecraft, so another astronaut ...


8

Ammonia is used because it has excellent heat transfer properties (as you mention) and a low freezing point. Because of its toxicity, the ISS has internal coolant loops which use water as a heat transfer fluid. Only the heat exchangers where the two systems interface allow for the possibility of ammonia leaks into the cabin. After detailed engineering ...


9

Yes, there is a lot of Space legacy left behind and many used systems are not properly preserved in Russia and other CIS countries, I think through the right channels one might be able to acquire it. Complications could arise if the nation which would be purchasing might not yet possess the technology as well as any other political barricades. Also if one is ...


9

The descent vehicles of the Soyuz spacecraft are approximately half reusable. The most expensive structural elements are reused. Therefore, the cost of a used descent vehicle is high. However, sometimes these descent vehicles are sold. Recently: Technik Museum Speyer in 2010 acquired Soyuz TM-19. CITE DE L'ESPACE in Toulouse, France in 2017 tried to acquire ...


3

Is it expected to deliver astronauts to the ISS Crew-Dragon-style, but without the 2nd stage; that is, "FSTO"? (as opposed to SSTO) Starship cannot get to orbit in any meaningful way without Super Heavy. Theoretically, it would be possible to get to LEO without any payload and by removing all recovery hardware, the body flaps, the landing legs, ...


6

Is Starship planned to fly directly to the ISS without first stage? Is it expected to deliver astronauts to the ISS Crew-Dragon-style, but without the 2nd stage; that is, "FSTO"? No. Starship will be launched on top of Super Heavy. There is no plans for a SSTO Starship on Earth to carry crew/cargo to orbit. Is it even possible? Tweet. You would ...


2

Check out the code in the ISS Mimic github which has a calculation for roll/pitch/yaw using the ISS telemetry via the lightstreamer api roll = math.degrees(math.atan2(2.0 * (quaternion0 * quaternion1 + quaternion2 * quaternion3), 1.0 - 2.0 * (quaternion1 * quaternion1 + quaternion2 * quaternion2))) + rollerror pitch = math.degrees(math.asin(max(-1.0, min(1.0,...


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This was so trivial to answer that I considered downvoting it for lack of research, but I'm interested in answering ISS questions right now, and I normally upvote questions that I answer. Searching on images.nasa.gov for "soyuz window" returns many hits, here is one. View of antenna and solar arrays (with an Earth limb in the background) taken ...


3

Partial answer covering two of the three questions in the post. "did anybody on the ISS see and/or photograph this partial eclipse?" Solar Eclipse Viewing: The crew removed scratch panes from Cupola windows #4 and #6 and cleaned the window #3 scratch pane. The crew then took both HD video and still images of the moon’s umbra on Earth from the ...


5

No. Although as stated in another answer, the International side of the ISS is under the jurisdiction and control of the relevant partners, that doesn't mean that those modules are the TERRITORY of the relevant states. It is a lot like embassies, which, despite the Simpsons episode to the contrary, are absolutely not territory of their home state, despite ...


1

A common limitation on CubeSats is that they can't contain explosives or high-energy substances, like rocket fuel. But there is a project testing the use of water for fuel. In orbit, the water is hydrolyzed into hydrogen and oxygen with electricity generated by solar panels. So the fuel is completely inert when it is loaded on the rocket and traveling with ...


3

Up until Expedition 12, everyone on the station arrived and departed at the same time. Expedition 13 was the first one that did not occur. I believe this was in part due to spaceflight participant Anousheh Ansari visiting with the mission that brought the Expedition 14 crew up to the ISS. Thomas Reiter instead returned on the Space Shuttle, as it was then ...


5

All orbits about the Earth except for polar orbits will see their line of nodes precess due to the Earth's equatorial bulge. The effect is strongest for near-equatorial orbits and for objects in low Earth orbit. In the case of the International Space Station, this nodal precession causes the ISS's right ascension of ascending node to decrease by about 5° per ...


4

I'd always imagined its orientation would be fixed in inertial space, but now I'm inclined to say no? Trust your inclination! If Earth had perfect spherical symmetry then the smaller effects like gravity from the Sun and Moon and some other smaller effect would still perturb the ISS' orbital parameters (in addition to the big one - drag - which will pull it ...


1

The most that have been on the ISS at one time is 13 persons, but only for a short duration during crew changeover. Reference: www.space.com/6503-population-space-historic-high-13.html


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No. While there is no place that says that nothing valuable was ever thrown out in the trash on the ISS, there also is no place that says that that has happened.


-1

Hmmm... this is too close to be a coincidence. These are from about four months ago: Business Insider: SpaceX executive says the Starship rocket system could help clean up the 760,000 pieces of space junk in orbit Space.com: SpaceX's Starship may help clean up space junk and this just happened: March 16, 2021 Space News: U.S. Space Force would support ...


5

I assume you refer to the jettison of the garbage pallet containing the old batteries, which came in at about 2.9 tons. Those were jettisoned using the Canadarm2. The Canadarm2 has the following operational limits: Speed of Operations Unloaded: 37 centimeters / second (1.21 feet / second) Loaded: Station Assembly - 2 centimeters / second (.79 inches / ...


2

There are two main reasons it takes so long: lots of mass and very little delta-v. a large ballistic coefficient. The first is due to the limitation of the deployment mechanism. The second means that the drag takes longer than say a flimsy structure.


1

The Space shuttle did a deorbit burn for three minutes to decrease the orbital velocity by only 1 %. This delta v was only 90 m/s. But 90 m/s are 324 km/h, much more than a little extra push. A slow walker needs about 10 minutes for one km, 1.67 m/s or 6 km/h. If the gentle push is similar to the slow walkers speed, it is only 1.85 % of the neccessary delta ...


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