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34

You throw it in space (in the ISS) just like you would in a room on Earth. It returns to you if it is properly built, and you are capable of properly throwing a boomerang to make it return (this does take some skill.) A returning boomerang will only work in atmosphere - inside a spacestation or on a planet. They depend on aerodynamic forces for the return. ...


19

Like many dehydrated space foods, it's prepared by injecting hot water through a port in an otherwise sealed bag, manually mixing it by massaging the bag, and waiting a few minutes; the noodles are thinner than typical instant noodles so that moderately hot (instead of boiling) water can soften them. As for eating it without spilling, the secret seems to be ...


16

While I don't have a complete answer I thought I'd share what I've found in the hope that someone can come up with something better. I can find nothing online about exactly how and why the visiting vehicle schedule is constructed (Although this could simply be my poor google-fu skills). One thing that is clear is just how tightly packed the schedule is. ...


15

The bolts are part of the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM). The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a complex collection of latches, bolts, Ready to Latch (RTL) indicators ... and computers to control this equipment. This system can be operated by either the ground or the crew; extravehicular activities (EVAs) (i.e., spacewalks) are not required to use this ...


13

The question should be broken in several parts. Why was Cape Canaveral chosen? Why does NASA not relocate somewhere else? What is the gain in terms of payload mass when launching from Kourou? I will not answer the third part since for each launcher and inclination the answer will be slightly different. From Moonport: Cape Canaveral, better known as "...


12

The return function of a boomerang works in the atmosphere only. Therefore no return in the vacuum of space. The 'arms' of a boomerang are profiled like a airplane wing, but wings do not work without air. (The ISS isn't a vacuum, and so boomerangs "work" in them.)


10

If the package on the right of the lower picture in the question was actually flown, it would have been heated in the Shuttle galley's "food warmer" / "oven". This is because it already contains water and does not need rehydration. Here is a description from the Shuttle Crew Operations Manual. The oven is divided into two principal compartments: an ...


10

It's all covered by a payload fairing that isn't flush with the body of the spacecraft. A picture is worth a thousand words:


9

The SS-520 lacks the guidance systems that more complex rockets have. It can detect where it is, and what it's attitude is, but can't make as many adjustments as more complex rockets. In order to make it to orbit, it has to start at a slight angle, to allow a gravity turn. Essentially a launched rocket at a slight angle will tend to point more at the horizon ...


9

Radiation from the Sun does indeed cause solar panels to deteriorate over time, and powerful single events can lead to a sudden reduction in the efficiency of a solar panel. In 2003, a large solar storm led to an average 3% drop in power for all of EUMETSAT's geostationary spacecraft. We don't really have a good way to "protect" panels from such effects, ...


9

They will use the attitude control engines instead of the main engine. JAXA decided to carry out orbit control of the AKATSUKI using its liquid-fuel thrusters for altitude control (or the reaction control subsystem, RCS.) Based on this decision, almost all of the unnecessary oxidizer was discarded in Oct. 2011. As a result, the satellite became lighter, ...


9

I would like to add my own answer based purely on math, which is not as complex as you may think (but I explain each term and everything else so it looks long). We only need a couple equations. First the Tsiolkovsky Rocket Equation: $V_f = V_e \ln(\displaystyle \frac{m_i}{m_f})$ (Soon, we'll need this rearranged for $m_f$, which is $m_f = \displaystyle \...


9

The SS-520-5 launcher is not intended to be an operational vehicle. ... the SS-520-5 was also an experiment to construct a minimum system that can be established with a micro-small rocket and whether future AFSS will be established. ...was conducted as a demonstration of compact and light substrate technology, consumer ...


8

If JAXA successfully deploys MASCOT, it will be the first lander to use "torque wheel based" propulsion. It is not, however, the first lander to be designed with such a system. JAXA's previous Hayabusa mission had the MINERVA lander on board, which intended to use an "internal fly-wheel assembly" to flick itself across the surface, but it failed to deploy ...


7

Assuming that the design of the parachute was the same as that used on the first Hayabusa, the section you mention is actually netting. The following description of the parachute was given when the first Hayabusa was put on display to the public by JAXA (pdf summary in japanese): パラシュート。強くて軽くてかさばらないポリエステル製の十字形の布でできていて、開くときに絡まないように十字以外の部分はネットが張られています。...


6

Hayabusa2's Home Position, also known as BOX-A, is a cubic region approximately 1km in size, 20km above Ryugu and directly on the Ryugu-Earth line. We can show that the Home Position is not at any Lagrange points just by checking where they would be for Ryugu. The Hill radius of an object mass $m$ in orbit with semi-major axis $a$ around a body mass $M$ (...


6

The density of carbon dioxide on Venus varies from about 67 kg/m3 at the surface to about 52 kg/m3 at a height of about 5 km, calculated with this software tool Image from Solar Powered Flight on Venus According to the graph above and Appendix A from the article the wind speed on Venus varies from 0.6 m/sec at the surface to 1.2 m/sec at a height of 5 km. ...


6

They're burning off hydrogen in what is called a "flare stack". Probably the hydrogen boiled off from chilling down the engine and/or the hydrogen boiling off from the tank. These dim orange flames are typical hydrogen diffusion flames. The water is there to prevent anything from catching fire. Hydrogen burns pretty hot. Daylight picture: Source JAXA (...


6

Probably the best description of JAXA's process is the example provided on JAXA's website of the Development of the ASCA (ASTRO-D) Project. This example is in line with JAXA's ISAS Mission Selection Procedures: ISAS Mission Selection Procedures ISAS has a character of an inter-university research institute, and is run in cooperation with ...


6

Almost certainly. The predecessor H-IIA rocket delivered the orbiter SELENE to the moon in 2007. The SELENE-2 mission slated for 2018 or 2019 will use either an H-IIA or an H-IIB launcher -- it's not entirely clear which from the references I've found, but I think it will be the H-IIA, as the payload is not significantly heavier than that of SELENE.


5

Yes! Update: Thanks to @Sean's answer, I've made an update here as well. From Wikipedia's S-Series_(rocket_family); SS-520-5 The second attempt at becoming the smallest orbital launching rocket was made on 3 February 2018. Liftoff, from the Uchinoura Space Centre, occurred at the opening of a ten-minute window at 14:03 local time (05:03 UTC), successfully ...


5

Searching for "hayabusa 2 thruster specifications" leads me to a paper titled Development and Testing of the Hayabusa2 Ion Engine System. The thruster is called µ10, four of them are used in a single gimbaling mount, and the specific impulse ranges from 2740 s to 2890 s depending on power level. Thrust is 6.3-9.0 mN.


5

According to the JAXA page about the rocket, it's a solid-fuel motor: The propellant, a pre-formed grain, polyurethane composite with a low burning rate... By polyurethane composite I assume they mean HTBP plus ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder, since that's what JAXA generally uses for solid rockets. Since it's a solid rocket stage, the motor ...


5

There's a good description of the planned landing procedure in the news item, Japan's Hayabusa2 space capsule to fall back to Earth after six-year asteroid mission. Essentially human observers on the ground at Woomera and in the air, combined with radar tracking and the use of a tracking beacon will be used to track and locate the returned capsule. As the ...


4

From spaceflight101.com: Hayabusa began firing three of its four ion engines again on January 10, 2018 marking the initiation of the far-field approach phase to take the spacecraft toward its destination with ion engine operation planned to last until early June when the final approach phase will be initiated from a distance of 2,500 Kilometers. [...] ...


4

From the same article, a better photo of the launch site, showing the rocket on its launch rail next to the building: The JAXA site doesn't indicate why the rocket wasn't launched vertically. My guess: most rockets start a pitch maneuver pretty much as soon as they've cleared the tower. This rocket is small enough to be launched from a rail, which means it ...


4

The "porch" (formally the JEM-EF (Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility)) had a matching connector on it that mated with the connector in the pictures above. This picture shows the shuttle arm holding the JEM-EF and the mating connector. The coarse alignment guides on the two connectors interface with each other; the circles are electrical and data ...


4

To confirm @AlphaD's answer, here are some pictures of peregrine parachute (はやぶさ パラシュート) from a Japanese image search. (Peregrine isn't the kind of parachute, it's English for Hayabusa.) They are called cross-form/cruciform parachutes and are used for payload deliveries. hayabusa 1: hayabusa 2: development version:


3

I think the Int-Ball uses all fans in a "push-configuration" and only does have passive air inlets in it's chassis. The internals of the chassis are therefore "empty" enough to enable sufficient airflow to the fans. On this website if found a picture credited to JAXA: You can see those "Air inlets" in your first picture at the bottom of the drone.


3

Historically, Japan has been involved in international space collaboration. They built the Kibo module on the ISS as well as lots of the surrounding science hardware, and a few Japanese astronauts have done expeditions to the Station. There are not many things better than an international treaty to make sure policy survives through multiple administrations. ...


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