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52

Chandrayaan-1 hit the Moon at high speed and did not survive its "landing", which would have been much more difficult to engineer. (Its successor, Chandrayaan-2, which will actually land, is expected to cost \$125 million and has taken more than ten years so far, as opposed to the three years for Chandrayaan-1.) As far as cost goes, besides India's own (...


18

A one-way trip is much simpler and much cheaper than a return mission. a return mission is more complicated because it has to do more a return mission is much heavier (because of the extra systems, and the fuel needed for the return capsule) which means it needs a bigger launcher which is more expensive We have had no sample return missions from any ...


13

Orbiting satellites can still have problems with eclipses, from loss of both power and heat but the total time is normally measured in minutes so simply having enough battery power to keep electronics running (and producing heat) and some basic insulation will allow temperature control. For unlit periods in days heat from nuclear decay is often used, ...


11

Without having access to the proprietary design documents of these landers, it will be impossible to give a definite answer. However, there are a few observations and guesses we can make. First of all, the landers (its only three, the last two are the same lander in different configurations) Altair (LSAM), crewed, two stages (non re-usable), 14.5 tons ...


9

The Moon is upside down!! First line of data_m.txt: 22 Feb 2019 00:25:25.342,360092.027359,47067.127093,-13285.073162 JPL Horizons for position of Luna relative to the Geocenter using ICRF ("Earth Mean Equator and Equinox of Reference Epoch"): 2458536.518055555, A.D. 2019-Feb-22 00:26:00.0000, -3.600940899651895E+05, -4.703362154841860E+04, 1....


9

NASA has helpfully provided a list of spacecraft classifications which covers these terms (and more.) Rover: a vehicle. There have been 4 rovers on Mars: Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity. Lander: any spacecraft that can land safely. Lander spacecraft are designed to reach the surface of a planet and survive long enough to telemeter data ...


7

According to Quanzhi Ye (via tweet; while not a primary source, he is planetary scientist who understands Chinese) it is for simulating Mars' lower gravity while testing obstacle avoidance for the Chinese Martian landers. There is some additional information on the testing program for the lander and Long March 5 rocket, which will carry it to Mars, in this ...


7

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B0-24 "Общая глубина бурения составила 225 сантиметров." Translation: "Overall depth of drilling was 225 centimeters." That was Luna-24 in 1976, bringing back some Moon rocks. From Gunter's Space Page Luna Ye-8-5M (Luna 23, 24): Luna 24 was launched on 9 August 1976, entered lunar orbit on 14 August ...


6

It was just called the MAV (Mars Ascent Vehicle), and was part of a 1997 study on how to do MSR (Mars Sample Return). The purpose of the study was to guide technology development, and in fact it resulted in the development of thruster that could use MON-3 oxidizer (instead of the standard MON-25), in order to lower the freezing temperature of the propellants....


5

It's the soil sampling arm and scoop. This Surveyor mission was the first one that carried a surface-soil sampling-scoop, which can be seen on its extendable arm in the pictures. This mechanism was mounted on an electric-motor-driven arm and was used to dig four trenches in the lunar soil. These trenches were up to seven inches (18 centimeters) ...


5

Prestige is an important part of it, even if you contract with somebody else for the launch vehicle. You have to handle the landing, and that's challenging. Israel's rover was partially meant to show that a private entity, rather than a government, can land a probe on the moon, and I do think national pride was involved there too. And similar motivations ...


4

Is post-X-prize Beresheet better than the X-prize candidate? No. The post-X-prize Beresheet has the same mission as the X-prize candidate. Furthermore, "cost" is a poor proxy for "better" in terms of spaceflight. The Beresheet lander's primary mission is to inspire the next generation to learn Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. It has done so ...


4

Imho the Israeli SpaceIL Beresheet Moon lander already satisfies your question. It was developed to compete in the Google Lunar X-Prize It was launched by F9 on February 22, 2019 as a secondary payload with Nusantara Satu (PSN-6) and it separated into supersynchronous GTO. It then moved to the Moon under its own power and crashlanded there on 11 April 2019.


3

@polygnome covers a lot of the design motivations, I imagine they cover the big picture but an addition from my little corner of the academia: One area of concern (source: NASA provided funding, though from what I can tell NASA are worried about, and provide funding for everything), is the spray of particulate matter and dust, picked up by the jet form the ...


3

Let's look at the company's webpage for the Blue Moon mission. At the very bottom, they clearly state: For interest in flying on Mission One or future lunar transport services, please email (redacted) So they are trying to sell space for people or payloads who want to go to the moon. The same page has sections "Large Lunar Landing Payload Capability" ...


3

There is a lot in development to meet the 2024 Human Lunar return goal set by the National Space Council. At IAC this year, Blue Origin unveiled their national team consisting of themselves, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and Draper Labs. This team will collaboratively build a Lunar Lander and submitted to NASA's design request on November 5th. Their ...


3

Another angle on it is that we really know very little about the far side of the Moon. The Apollo and Luna samples are from the near side, and instruments used to analyze the Moon remotely can access only the near side. The far side has very different features from the near side, including a huge basin where water-ice bearing crater bottoms may be hiding. ...


3

Is it because there is little information shared across international space agencies? No. NASA has published pretty much all their data from their Moon missions, and continues to do so. Other nations have published their data too (you can find the Chandrayaan data on the same site). And researchers from all over the world can request access to the Apollo ...


3

SEIS: Insight’s Seismic Experiment for Internal Structure of Mars has a truly gobsmacking amount of information all about Insight's seismometers. Testing facilities mentioned include: Pinion Flat Observatory (PFO) the IPGP 'Observatoire de Saint Maur' facility the Kinemetrics test vault in Acton, Southern California as mentioned by commenter @asdfex ...


2

As @Muze pointed out in a comment, the InSight Mars lander is the latest project of this kind on Mars. It begins digging this week and is designed to reach a depth of 5 m in approximately two months.


2

NASA has pretty much decided to use commercial landers. In November 2018 they announced 9 companies that would receive money to develop lander concepts, and with the likely addition of SpaceX these 10 companies will be competing to build lunar landers. I'm confident that all 10 are doing some work to developing these landers, along with plans to make them ...


2

Because NASA want to be able to go to the Moon, having a concept available is a good way of getting business (be it development or service)


2

Launching resources to build space stations is expensive. This is because gravity on Earth makes it require a lot of energy to get off the ground and into space. The moon has certain resources that are very useful for building, including iron, silicon, water and mercury. There are several reasons why getting these resources from the Moon are better than ...


2

I think the it refers to Pragyaan. Pragyaan communication is via Lander to IDSN(and DSN) and Lander will have 15 days visibility. Orbiter is in polar orbit of about ~2 Hrs and the orbit is not in anyway earth synchronous. We do experience eclipse and data silence every orbit.


2

What could be the complete internal architecture of my payload's OBDH system? I would use a Raspberry Pi model 3b+, connected to a camera module. You may run the latest version of Raspbian (a Linux flavor based on Debian) and configure the startup scripts to start streaming footage. Which processor should I use for fast processing, less power budget? ...


1

The reason is mostly to isolate the habitable portion of the lander to the end that docks with the Lunar Gateway. On two-stage designs, this is just the Ascent Module. Habitable volume is heavy compared to structure and fuel tanks. Another benefit is being able to dedicate most of the bottom of the lander to fuel tanks to reduce plumbing. Ladders and ...


1

Scientists routinely use the onboard transponders of deep space missions to return signals from the Deep Space Network in order to determine their distance from earth. This is briefly described in this Scientific American article. Since the furthest object ever visited by a deep space mission is Ultima Thule by the New Horizon's spacecraft, it stands to ...


1

The image above is an enlarged part of a HiRiSE image captured in Januari 2012, and the only other one that I could find.


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