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2

Not a chance. As detailed in Bill Gray's FAQ for C/2019 Q4, the velocity at "infinity" when it leaves the Solar System will be ~32.6 km/s, one of the strongest signs that this was an interstellar object. This is considerably larger than the fastest moving spacecraft, the Voyagers, at 16 km/s. So with current conventional rockets or ion propulsion there is no ...


10

Let's refine your calculations a bit. Worldwide, less than 200 rockets are launched each year. They have an average empty weight of 30 tons (rounding up a bit), which is mostly aluminium. That adds up to 6000 tons. This is a tiny fraction (0.001%) of total aluminium production (60 million tons). if it were economically feasible to recover rocket stages ...


8

Knowing the weather forecast, the pad crews drained the water pipes or left them running to prevent them freezing and bursting. With sub-freezing temperatures predicted, ground crews drained most of the water pipes at the launch pad to minimize ice formation. Those that could not be drained were left running overnight, and strong wind gusts blew ...


13

Image source The booster has two kinds of joints between its segments, field joints and factory joints. The booster parts shipped to KSC were made up of two segments joined by factory joints. At KSC, these parts were put together using the field joints. There are three field joints and seven factory joints in a Shuttle SRB. Image Source Both kinds of ...


12

'Loaded' means it's loaded with propellant (as opposed to something like 'inert' or no marking at all, for casings that have not been loaded). It's used to make it easy to distinguish which casing segments have been loaded with propellant and which ones haven't. Loaded segments require different handling procedures than non-loaded segments. In the military,...


5

During first stage both the SSME engines and SRB nozzles gimbaled to provide thrust vector control (TVC); the SRBs provided most of the control authority due to their long moment arm and high thrust. For all of your sub-questions, the TVC would move the thrust vector slightly to rotate the vehicle in the desired direction. Nose up pitch: nozzles deflect ...


0

In russian for example Belkov V.N., Lanshakov V.L. Missile Systems: Aspects of Computer Aided Design: Tutorial Бельков В.Н., Ланшаков В.Л. Ракетные комплексы: аспекты автоматизированного проектирования: Учеб. пособие https://studfiles.net/preview/2687823/page:28/ GAS-DYNAMIC PROCESSES IN THE GAS STROKE OF THE STARTING COMPLEX OF SMALL DEPTH FOR ...


3

This picture (from the document linked below) shows the Vanguard engines; the first stage engine is in the rear. The engine was an X-405 built by General Electric. The launch vehicle was built by Martin Marietta. These two contractors differed on the exact cause of the explosion, as the question states. Martin: The Martin people traced what they ...


0

I am not a civil engineer, but found some interesting papers that may get you started. This paper, co-authored by a Chilean scientist and a NASA employee at John F. Kennedy Space Center, is on noise and vibration produced a launch. An extremely interesting paper - by the sound of its abstract - on researchgate.net says this: According to the status of ...


5

Red fuming nitric acid is used as a storable non cryogenic oxidizer. It does not leak, its fumes are vented, I guess to prevent a tank overpressure. From this pdf Problems in Storage and Handling of Red Fuming Nitric Acid So there might be too few NO2 and H2O within the mixture. Adding water would be dead weight, but 2 to 3.5 % should not be a problem.


5

This answer is largely speculative but based upon knowledge of similar systems. The Safir space launch vehicle may use hypergolic propellants. The launch site shown in the photograph has minimal permanent infrastructure. Hypergolic propellant storage facilities at Johnson Space Center and White Sands Test Facility have burner stacks to safely dispose of ...


0

I think this is a contrail effect just like those caused by aircrafts. Both aircraft jet fuel and rocket fuels like RP-1 and liquid hydrogen produce a lot of water vapor when burned within the respective engine. Depending on the temperature and humidity at the altitude the contrails form, they may be visible for only a few seconds or minutes, or may ...


2

Partial answer (throttle settings): Throttle settings varied per flight, and NASA quit publishing these Mission Reports a long time ago. But here are some numbers to get you started, from STS-81 (the last one I could find online). For the 3-G throttling that starts at 012:09:34:51.537 and ends at 012:09:35:48.513 you can assume a linear ramp on the ...


4

The engines on the Delta IV Heavy, like most large liquid-fueled engines, can gimbal, vectoring up to 6º in any direction, so any mass imbalance can be corrected for almost instantly. That said, it would also be possible to just start with a couple hundred kg of propellant more in the tanks on the booster that lights first; propellant tanks are generally ...


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