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87

It's required to by the legislation that created it, the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. FUNCTIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATION Sec. 203. (a) The Administration, in order to carry out the purpose of this Act, shall-- (1) plan, direct, and conduct aeronautical and space activities; (2) arrange for participation by the scientific ...


53

How to Protect and Preserve the Historic and Scientific Value of U.S. Government Lunar Artifacts summarizes the 1967 Outer Space Treaty thusly: These recommendations are consistent with international law, including the following: The 1967 U.N. Outer Space Treaty (OST), which provides, in part: That outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all ...


40

I drive by it every day... We do it for the benefit of all: Really though, the government has a vested interest in making sure we (the United States) remain a technology leader in the world because it's good for the economy. Private industry is usually too risk-averse to undertake basic research with no current applications even though the payoff can ...


22

Because they're scientists, and publishing your results is what scientists do. There's a reason why the final step of basically every research methodology used in academia is "publish your results" (and I'm only saying "basically every" because I'm not an expert on the field of research methodologies, so while it's possible that there's one obscure one out ...


18

Possession is 9/10 of the law. If you somehow get there and steal the flag, it's not like any Space Marines are going to jump out from behind a crater rim. Law needs to be enforceable. Maintaining ownership of the flag is a different issue. You can kiss your chance of being free on US soil goodbye, especially if you're a citizen. Laws would be found, made up,...


13

There are two schools of thought discussed in Asteroid Mining: International and Legal Aspects by Frans G. von der Dunk: Perspective 1: The US and countries like Luxembourg believe that any resources mined on the moon are global commons which allows licensed entities to make a commercial business out of mining the moon. (see page 96 in the document and ...


12

In order to transmit from a country, one must have a license to do so, with the exception of some spaces without specific owners, like WiFi's 2.4 GHz that allows small narrow transition can work. It is common to have to pay for the bandwidth for each country. Some countries are pickier than others. All that being said, it is perfectly normal and reasonable ...


11

The answer is No, largely based on the fact that India is a signatory to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. If you pick a country that didn’t sign any of the patchwork of treaties covering space, it could be a slightly different answer. Still, a government can ask, but they might never get paid. But, to India: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?...


9

NASA is not a stand-alone thing. It is the civilian part of the space industry, and partially, the military industry of the USA. They work together. For example: they publish the photos, what the Hubble made. This is very useful for the whole humanity. But the same (or very similar) technologies are used in spy satellites, too. Only the watch not the sky, ...


9

No Here's what ITAR says about launch vehicles Category IV - Launch Vehicles, Guided Missiles, Ballistic Missiles, Rockets, Torpedoes, Bombs, and Mines (a) Rockets, space launch vehicles (SLVs), missiles, bombs, torpedoes, depth charges, mines, and grenades, as follows: Rockets, SLVs, and missiles capable of delivering at least a 500-kg ...


8

There are two things about such an action that must be considered: what happens on the station itself so that the crew can protect themselves, and what happens once the crew returns. To the first part, NASA does have a policy in place to handle an out of control astronaut. This article references but does not provide a link to the protocol. However, it's ...


7

Any rocket capable of putting a spacecraft in orbit is going to fall under Category IV, paragraph (a), subparagraph (1), (2), or (4). Under Note 3 to paragraph (a), it explicitly calls out model and high power rockets defined in NFPA Code 1122 "made of paper, wood, fiberglass, or plastic containing no substantial metal parts and designed to be flown with ...


5

Apart from a series of patent applications related to Starlink antennas, they haven't aggressively sought patents. A search of the US patent office application database gives the following hits for patent applications credited to SpaceX. 20200086602 LASER-PERFORATED METAL HONEYCOMB MATERIAL 20190252801 ANTENNA APERTURE IN PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA SYSTEMS ...


3

It may be that if your country is in a war with the USA, you may claim the flag as a war trophy. If your army manages to defeat the US, they may as well accept the loss of this particular flag. Otherwise, it is property of the US government. Both the US government (as stated by NASA) and the general public considers it a rather valuable asset. In most ...


3

Spectrum management is both science and art. One way of avoiding interference is using separate frequencies for different systems. If the spectrum can be confined to national boundaries, then usually it is licensed by the country administration (FCC, Ofcom etc.) however, if you want to operate a global system, the allocation must be done on an international ...


3

Yes, No, Maybe. All of those, depending on where they want to buy it. When buying property in a country, you generally have to do it under the jurisdiction of the country where the property is located. That means which flavor of contract law is involved varies wildly. In general, though, contracts can be offered & accepted both verbally (oral) or in ...


2

I see the two key issues are: proving ones identity having witnesses to the signing of documents I hesitated about answering this question. I think the question only stands as a "Space Exploration" question to the extent that these two issues can or cannot be solved in a way that is unique to being in space as opposed to simply being physically removed ...


2

Why would being in space be any different from being in another country, or even at home during lock down (covid 19)? Every local government has different rules. With cash, transfer is just changing ownership. You don't need a contract to trade money for real estate. Getting a loan to finance a land purchase might be difficult. But if you are paying ...


2

Symposium will not be held. Source: I asked Jonathan.


2

Receiving data from NASA spacecraft has happened several times, and seems to be fine. The problem is transmitting to said spacecraft where you can run in to legality issues.


2

There are similar situations on Earth where objects were taken and the original owners have been unable to get them back, such as the The Parthenon Marbles (also known as the Elgin Marbles). So while the law may make it technically theft once you have it and put it on display the United States may find it difficult to get back. Many countries are unwilling ...


1

Radio spectrum licensing prohibits sending transmissions on the same frequency and location as where licences are granted to protect licence holders from interference. So sending commands is not permitted, except as mentioned where there are invitations to attempt to hack to help the operator identify vulnerabilities. One can always listen and in fact many ...


1

One aspect only of the wider issues: The Indian government has complete 'legal' control of what service users transmit*. Receive only internet just maybe would be able to avoid government involvement. As soon as you wish to transmit to a Starlink satellite the government can impose whatever terms it wishes. As almost all internet services involve two way ...


1

Maybe The closest thing we have to using ITAR to regulate "software" would be 3D printed gun CAD files. Specifically a company called Defense Distributed makes CAD files for 3D printed guns and the US government used ITAR to stop them from distributing the files online On Thursday, Defense Distributed founder Cody Wilson received a letter from the ...


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