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16

Kennedy Space centre in Florida formerly had its own plant for the manufacture of cryogenic fuels and other liquids. This is now closed as noted earlier. The procurement for cryogenic fuel for NASA is done via the office of procurement at KSC. It was determined that the US has only one supplier cryogenics that can supply the cape with the necessary 30 trucks ...


15

Some work on refueling capability for the SCA was done: Studies were conducted to equip the SCA with aerial refueling equipment, a modification already made to the U.S. Air Force E-4 (modified 747-200s) and 747 tanker transports for the IIAF. However, during formation flying with a tanker aircraft to test refueling approaches, minor cracks were spotted ...


9

The Soyuz seat liners are carefully molded to each crewperson individually by special craftsmen; this is supposedly vital to successfully experiencing the shocks and accelerations of landing. Wearing an EMU in the seat would make the seat liner not fit properly, exposing the crew person to possible injury. Photos of the mold process


9

Supplementary answer: I've searched the Aviation Week and Space Technology archives for any references to the Easter Island abort site planning. There isn't a lot, but everything I've seen talks only about runway enhancements, nothing about port facility enhancements. The requirement seems to have been to accommodate the "space shuttle and at least one ...


9

At Kourou, there's a production plant for liquid hydrogen and oxygen. The plant is run by Air Liquide, a French company that specializes in industrial gases. There's also a casting facility for solid rocket stages.


7

At NASA, the type of vehicles you are describing go by the name Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTVs). While none are currently funded or planned for, there were studies underway as recently as the 80s. Upper stages are sometime considered "space tugs" but I don't think that is a good description as they are only used once and are really just, well, an upper ...


7

Historically, we haven't had the instantaneous technology that we enjoy today. However, we have never had in place a way to communicate at a distance without setting up some sort of protocol beforehand. Let me discuss how some of this has been handled historically, how it is handled with distance spacecraft today, and a bit of how we could figure it out with ...


6

Depends on the fuel. With Liquid Oxygen, for regular launches, it makes more sense to build a LOX plant nearby and pipe it to the pad/storage tank, than it is to buy it offsite. You can see the SpaceX oxygen ball near the pad at LC-40. It seems that during the Saturn project they had such a plant at the Cape near LC-17 but no longer. Nitrogen in large ...


4

Can food be preserved in space? Technically yes, since the general objective of food preservation is to prevent biological spoilage, which certainly happens in the cold vacuum of space. While there are many microbes that can survive in space there are no known microbes that can thrive(reproduce/multiply) in freezing 0 pressure conditions (it's like a ...


3

Of particular interest in scenarios such as this where the delay could be extremely large and the communication medium lossy is the combination of repetition and multiple options: If the craft is populated by humans you can allow a certain amount of autonomy, but you may still want to provide alternative messages. As a simplified example: If scenario x ...


3

I wouldn't know for the first part of your question, but I did research a bit the second half. Still limiting it to US astronauts alone, I would say that their qualification for hazard pay depends on who they work for, their contract, and also what they're currently doing. It will however be really hard to give fair estimate on what's common practice, how ...


2

Uh... It seems that if they are military astronauts (We still have those?), then they are being paid on the basis that they are part of the military. The IRS code seems to imply that it is, however, they are again, speaking strictly about military astronauts, there is not a single mention of civilian astronauts. I don't honestly know about Civilian ...


2

This is one of those things that, for the time being, everyone is looking at the possibility of the use of quantum entanglement as means of relaying information error free and over enormous distances at greater than light speeds: Repeated experiments have verified that this works even when the measurements are performed more quickly than light could ...


2

The Orbital Sciences entry in the CRS program is the Cygnus vehicle. It has two components a cargo module and an orbital module. While not officially offered as a tug, it functions as a tug to bring the cargo module to the station. While the Cygnus payload module is not that big, it seems likely that Orbital could provide such functionality, should the ...


2

Googling around, I couldn't find any mention of a space tug program being officially announced by NASA. From Wikipedia: A reusable space tug was studied in 1969 as part of NASA's Space Transportation System, but went unfunded, as did every other component of that system except the Space Shuttle.


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