8

Your first diagram does, implicitly, include the sun's position in the form of the shadowing on the moon. The Apollo missions were planned with launch windows such that the missions would land on the moon in "early morning", when the sun was low in the East at the landing site. A low sun angle made the shape of the lunar terrain more visible; sun behind ...


5

I've been trying to find a link between the mini-magnetosphere actually created at Rutherford Appleton Labs (U.K.) in 2013 to NASA. So far there's only anecdotal reports and interviews none of which are conclusive as to NASA's involvement. RAL has a good bit of material published on the proof of concept magnetosphere and as far as I can tell is the only ...


3

As per wiki, light sails are made of Mylar, a reflective polyester film. The material with the highest diamagnetic constant is bismuth, χv = −1.66×10−4, although pyrolytic carbon may have a susceptibility of χv = −4.00×10−4 in one plane.. You can see pyrolytic carbon levitating above strong rare-earth magnets with a gap of only a few millimetres in the video ...


2

Ionizing radiation can be both charged particles and electromagnetic radiation. As pointed out in comments, a magnetic field can in some cases be used to deflect charged particles like protons and electrons, but not electromagnetic radiation like UV light, X-rays or gamma rays. For ionizing charged particle radiation the Earth's magnetic field is low in ...


2

That paper "Anthropogenic Space Weather" runs to 55 pages, but only 5 pages discuss VLF impact on the ionosphere (chapter 8), while 35 pages (chapters 2-7) discuss EMP from high altitude nukes. This is for the simple reason that even a world-class VLF transmitter like Cutler 24kHz transmitter can only emit a few megawatts, while a big nuke emits billions of ...


2

Hmmm this is an interesting theory, though I am confused how they would maintain that position between Mars and the Sun. Moreover I want to point out this is theoretical and is not actually building or making a magnetosphere around Mars. It's more like making a shield between the Sun and Mars. This sort of raises the question of whether the value of a ...


1

Maybe not a proper answer, but: The measurements by MESSENGER spacecraft has shown that Mercury's magnetic field is tilted: (source) Here is a 2017 paper that summarizes recent discoveries. quote: MESSENGER magnetometer data show that Mercury’s magnetic field is not only exceptionally weak but also has a unique geometry. The internal field resembles ...


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