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18

Introduction to selecting a reference surface The surface of any celestial body can be anything but uniform. The oceans, where existing, can be treated as reasonably uniform, but the surface or topography of the land masses can exhibit large vertical variations between mountains and valleys. These variations make it impossible to approximate the shape of ...


18

There is a map of lunar pits, created by R. V. Wagner and M. S. Robinson of the School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, in 2014. From Distribution, Age, and Formation Mechanisms of Lunar Pits (PDF) by mentioned authors: Map of the locations of all currently-known pits. Orange stars indicate mare or highland pits, and blue ...


13

If you mean if New Horizons' data return could produce a global high-resolution map of Pluto's surface, then no, and here's why: Pluto at New Horizons approach: New Horizons Ground Track on Pluto: Source of both images is Alan Stern's (New Horizons PI) presentation (PDF) to OPAG Meeting in July 23, 2014. As you can see, on New Horizons' close approach, ...


12

NASA has produced a topographical features map of Ceres, with names for some craters. The map was produced in 2015. This one has few more details,


9

The question, 'Did they remove 4 atlases?' can only be answered by an insider. NTRS does not show documents that have been removed. However, a search for '"Lunar Orbiter" atlas' shows lots of results including "Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon" - a 500 Mb PDF with loads of photos. So they didn't systematically remove Lunar Orbiter results. ...


9

There are many different coordinate systems (X, Y, Z axes as you refer to them). The center of the Earth is often used as the origin "center" of the coordinate system, at least for calculations concerning the space in the vicinity of Earth. There are many such Earth-centered coordinate systems as well. In the Space Shuttle Program we used the "Mean of 50" ...


9

As OrganicMarble noted in the comments, Google Earth Pro has a nice map of Mars with all the rovers and landers included. And you can also measure distance. For example, here's the distance between Jezero Crater (left), and where Curiosity is in Gale Crater (right): As you can see, your estimate was pretty close. Google Earth Pro shows 3717 km, and your ...


8

Today, our highest-resolution gravitational maps of the Earth are from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) project, launched in 2002. That's not the case. The latest GRACE gravity model, which combines results from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions and DTU13 is a 360x360 (degree and order) gravity model. On the other hand, the EGM2008 ...


8

The standard for any tidally locked body, of which Europa is a member, is to have the 0 longitude be the point at the center of the planet-facing side. That being the case, the middle of the map should be the portion facing Jupiter, the edges the part that never faces Jupiter. See Wikipedia for the referenced quote below: Tidally-locked bodies have a ...


8

Here is a nice graph of part of what you are asking for. It's from the book Satellite Orbits; Models, Methods, Applications by Oliver Montenbruck and Eberhard Gill, Springer, 2000. The figure and description can also be found in google books. It shows the magnitude of some major perturbations acting on a satellite in earth orbit from LEO to GEO. This paper ...


8

The USGS Astrogeology Science Center's Astropedia is an excellent source for derived mapping data products (though only 7 Ceres products). Here is a "Ceres Nomenclature" data product:


6

It's referring to the plain old Lunar Orbiters of the 1960s. Boeing manufactured the spacecraft for NASA. According to NASA's Destination Moon: A History of the Lunar Orbiter Program, Boeing (in collaboration with Eastman Kodak) was one of 5 companies that responded to NASA's call for proposals, and the one that was ultimately chosen for the project.


6

For Mars, the current definition of 0 km is derived from data from the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data from Mars Global Surveyor. In fact the altitude reference is referred to as "MOLA altitude". You would say for example: "minus 1.4 km MOLA". From the paper: Zero elevation on Mars from MOLA is defined as the equipotential surface (...


5

There is an effort to map Earth's gravity, GRACE, which has been ongoing since 2002. It's produced this: Neat, right? Several GRAIL-like missions are planned / in progress / completed. Mars Express. LISA, a probe designed to measure gravitational fields in space, with hopes of finding black holes. Magellan mapped Venus' gravitational anomalies. MESSENGER ...


5

Here's the link: http://moon.bao.ac.cn/searchOrder_dataSearch.search You may need to create an account. Scientific Data -> Search -> find your data and download. The website is extremely slow, and not user friendly at all. The search page is so slow, may take 30-180 seconds to load. The download link looks like: http://moon.bao.ac.cn/cedownload/CCD/...


5

The polar regions aren't filled with useless texture - it just isn't very accurate. I have done the exercise you are going through. I'm pretty sure that data package is the best that exists, and better data won't be coming along any time soon. Here's what I did. I adjusted the top and bottom of the map to better match the rest. Yeah, that's just fudging. ...


5

Here's the labelled version you found of the USGS map large enough to read the text For completion's sake, here's a mirror, limited by the 2MB upload size of SE, so it's only barely readable. The link above has a much higher resolution Here's also the key only in somewhat higher resolution, which is likely reusable between all versions of the map.


5

Yep, Perseverance has the same map: https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/where-is-the-rover/


5

Presuming that we could build on what we learned from Ingenuity, and we built, launched, and landed a copter platform that was designed to autonomously map the surface of Mars, what challenges would it be worth undertaking? You are asking for far too much, and because you are asking for far too much, you are missing the point of Ingenuity, and its follow-on ...


4

Most weather balloons can go up to about 40 km. At that altitude, the pressure is about 2.9 millibars. The Martian atmosphere is about 6 millibars at surface level. At the summit of Olympus Mons (21.25 km) the pressure is about 0.3 millibar. That would set 2.9 millibar at about 9.8 km above the Martian surface. The record for highest high-altitude balloon ...


4

tl;dr Those numbers are meters per pixel. But you have to be careful because they are scans along the spacecraft orbit with the moon rotating underneath, so x and y are skewed. This answer will get you started. The LRO is an amazing spacecraft with a wide variety of instruments to map the moon's surface by a number of characteristics as well as ...


4

It depends on where the masscon is in relation to the orbit, and just how big the masscon is, as well as how carefully the orbit is measured, and whether or not anyone is actually looking. If it's a polar impact and an equatorial orbit, it would need to move the center of mass appreciably to be noticed at all. If it's an equatorial impact and a polar orbit,...


3

It was the Earth, of course. As early as 1964, scientists realized that the non-Keplerian orbits satellites gave a picture of the Earth's interior. For example, see S. K. Runcorn, "Satellite gravity measurements and a laminar viscous flow model of the earth's mantle," Journal of Geophysical Research 69.20 (1964): 4389-4394.


3

One need look no further than the Moon. There were (and to some extent still are) some rather severe internecine wars within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the "right" way to represent the Moon's orientation. One group insists that the right way to describe the Moon's orientation is via its principal axes (the MOON-PA point of view). Per this point of ...


3

Balloons can be quite useful for carrying scientific payloads, but only on Earth, Mars or something else "benign". Not Uranus though. In that context, it's more science fiction (of the remote future, that is) than a serious design consideration. They are a poor design choice because: They are completely useless for the duration of the rest of the mission ...


3

There are a couple of ways these can come. In the case of the image you provided, I believe they are using known altitude that comes from MOLA data which accurately found the elevation of the entire Martian surface, and using that to transform the image as it was. They are likely using some terrain features from the image to determine it's altitude as well. ...


3

According to the Universe Today website, the US Geological Service (USGS) has produced a geological map of the Moon, that is available online. This is also an animation of the globe of the Moon. The map in the picture included in your question can be downloaded from the USGS website and it is possible to zoom in on the map and legend to see the detail.


3

The Gravity Anomaly or Bouguer Anomaly Maps are no actual gravity maps. They are rather a map of ground density, expressed as an excess or deficit of gravity caused by differences in density. The maps are the result of measuring the gravity and subtracting all effects of oblateness, terrain shape, terrain height and so on. The result is a map of differences ...


3

Google Maps Moon likely uses a Simple Cylindrical projection for storing their map data. This is fine for the majority of the globe, but there are problems at the poles. Here are a few reasons why imagery of the poles is problematic: The data is prone to discontinuities because it has the entire top or bottom edge of the rectangular projection converging on ...


3

Do the current (or soon to be obtained) surface maps of those bodies have a spatial resolution that is high enough to enable the development of lander & robotic missions to those destinations? Not at all. We don't even have high enough remote resolution to land on our Moon or on Mars. Terrain relative navigation can get a vehicle most of the way there, ...


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